The research upon which this book is based was the Fantasy Analysis of 110 periodicals conducted over the past four years at The Institute for Psychohistory. I would like to express my thanks to the Research Associates of the Institute-particularly to Casper Schmidt, M.D., without whose help this book would not have been written-and to Jerome B. Rosen, Rudolph Binion, Susan Hem and Neil deMause for their invaluable aid in the preparation of this book.

A discussion of the concepts used in this book may be found in Lloyd deMause, Foundations of Psychohistory. New York: Creative Roots, 1982. Further studies describing the psychohistorical techniques used herein can be found in the journals of the Institute for Psychohistory, The Journal of Psychohistory and The Journal of Psychoanalytic An-thropology, the books of The Psychohistory Press and the Bulletin and Newsletter of the International Psychohistorical Association. Literature describing these publications may be obtained by writing The Institute for Psychohistory, 2315 Broadway, New York, New York 10024.

Unless otherwise indicated, all quotations from President Ronald Reagan are taken from the Weekly Transcript of Presidential Documents and all economic figures from Commerce Department publications.

"The King Must Die"

1. As the chart below shows, Federal debt as a percentage of GNP was at an all-time low since the 1930s (bottom line). It was actually private debt which was at an all-time high. Our guilt at the increase in our private debt was projected onto the Federal government, and the media invented a "soaring" Federal debt to condemn.

Outstanding debt of U.S. nonfinancial borrowers.

References for pages 2-10 165

2. Commerce Department figures show corporate investment in 1980 at 1l.3% of GNP, compared with 10.5% in1970 and 9.6% in 1960. This is not to deny that the U.S. could have benefited from higher corporate investment (most industrial countries saved double the U.S. rate of 6% of income)-only that U.S. investment was increas-ing, not dropping, during the previous two decades.
3. The consensus of economic opinion attributed something over half of the decline in inflation during 1981 to factors which had nothing to do with Reagan's fiscal policies.
4. Poll cited in Adam Smith, "Your Next Leader Is Behind You." Esquire, October, 1982, p.23.
5. For a full empirical study of the four stages of group-fantasy, see Lloyd deMause, Foundations of Psychohistory. New York: Creative Roots, 1982.
6. November 2, 1980, p.28. The technical rules for Fantasy Analysis are explained in deMause, Foundations, pp. 194ff.
7. Government expenditures on goods and services as a percentage of GNP from 1975 to 1980 were: 22.1, 21.2, 20.9, 20.5, 20.1 and 20.3.
8. Flora Lewis, N.Y. Times, March 9, 1981, p.29.
9. Newsweek, February 16, 1981, p.20.
10. Time, March 2, 1981, cover.
11. N.Y. Post, February 6, 1981, p.1.
12. Kansas City Star, March 29, 1981, p. 38A.
13. Newsweek, February 23, 1981, p.18.
14. Ibid, p.19.
15. Ibid.
16. Des Moines Sunday Register, March 29, 1981, p.1.
17. N.Y. Times, March 13, 1981, p.1.
18. James Fallows, "The Great Defense Deception." N.Y. Review of Books, May 28, 1981, pp.15-19.
19. U.S. News & World Report, March 9, 1981, p.18.
20. Harper's, December, 1980, p. 41.
21. N.Y. Times Magazine, March 15, 1981, p.45.
22. New Republic, November 8,1980, p.18.
23. N.Y. Times, January 15, 1981, p. C2.
24. Time, February 23, 1981, p.12.
25. Ibid.
26. For an excellent discussion of the literature on the killing of the new king in ritual combat, see Robert Paul, The Tibetan Symbolic
World: Psychoanalytic Explorations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982, pp. 13ff.
27. Anthony Lewis, N.Y. Times, January 11, 1981, p. E23.

References for pages 11-19 166

28. The best popular account of these studies can be found in Frank Browning, "Nobody's Soft on Crime Anymore," Mother Jones, August, 1982, pp.25-31.
29. As only one instance, the L.A. Times on March 29, the day before the shooting of Reagan, featured a large picture on the first page of a gunshot victim being treated in a medical center, plus a major story on "the current quality of trauma care"-a story which at other times would have been accorded inside-page treatment.
30. For evidence of Institute for Psychohistory forecast of shooting of Reagan, see Robert Finen, "Two Student Views," Journal of Psychohistory 11(1983)113-114.
31. Aaron Latham, "The Dark Side of the American Dream," Rolling Stone, August 5, 1982, pp. 18ff.
32. Ibid, p.54. Hinckley said he got the "signal" from a newspaper list of Reagan's schedule for the day; since this schedule was actually printed every day, it is more probable that his feeling was accurate that he had picked up the signal from the media, but that he was actually picking it up from the total media content during that week before the shooting.
33. N.Y. Post, April 1, 1981, p.41; Kansas City Star, April 19, 1981, p. 33.
34. Author's poll, taken during the week following the shooting, of 230 college students in three colleges in New York and New Jersey, about one-third of whom were adults in night school and the rest undergraduate-age students.
35. N.Y. Post, April 6, 1981, p.29.
36. Des Moines Register, April 12, 1981, p. Cl.
37. Time, April 27, 1981, p.16.
38. N.Y. Times, April 29, 1981, p. A22.
39. N.Y. Post, April 29,1981, p.2.

"Slipping Toward Impotence"

1. My analysis draws upon John J. Hartman, "Carter and the Utopian Group-Fantasy," in Lloyd deMause and Henry Ebel, eds., Jimmy Carter and American Fantasy. New York: Psychohistory Press, 1977, pp.97-116.
2. For Hartman's analysis of why utopian wishes are defenses against threats of group decay and dissolution, see ibid, p. 113, and references to literature therein.
3. For a more complete Fantasy Analysis of the Carter period, see deMause, Foundations, pp.221-230.

References for pages 20-27 167

4. New Republic, April 29, 1978, p.S.
5. Time, Aprfl 30, 1979, p.18.
6. N.Y. Times, October 10, 1977, p.1.
7. N.Y. Times, October 16, 1977, p.30.
8. Vermont Royster, Wall Street Journal, March 1, 1978.
9. The figure is that of real Gross National Product per capita, that is, U.S. goods and services corrected for inflationary changes and changes in population, from 1948 to 1978.
10. The Guardian, June 25, 1978, p.17.
11. As reported by TRB in New Republic, February 17, 1979, p.37 and March 10, 1980, p.3.
12. N.Y. Times, August 7, 1979, p. Al5.
13. John Osborn, New Republic, August 4, 1979, p.13.
14. N.Y. Post, July 23, 1979, p.1.
15. N.Y. Times, September 2, 1979, p. ElS.
16. For a description of the psychic mechanism of projective identification, whereby one puts one's craziest feelings into another person for safekeeping, see Thomas H. Ogden, Projective Identification and Psychotherapeutic Technique. New York: Jason Aronson, 1982.
17. Max Lerner, N.Y. Post, February 12, 1979; James Wechsler, N.Y. Post, February 22, 1979, p.23.
18. Village Voice, March 26, 1979, p.1.
19. Time, March 17, 1980, p.17.
20. See Lloyd deMause and Henry Ebel, eds., Jimmy Carter and American Fantasy. New York: Psychohistory Press, 1977; Lloyd deMause, "Historical Group-Fantasies," The Journal of Psychohistory 7(1979): 1-70 (reprinted in deMause, Foundations); public speeches by deMause at Institute for Psychohistory and at 1977 and 1978 Conventions of the International Psychohistorical Association; and six radio interviews on WOR and WBAI during those years. For a description of the response by the press and by academics to these predictions, see Chapter 7 of Foundations.
21. N.Y. Times, Jtine 29,1979, p.1.
22. Jimmy Carter, Keeping Faith: Memoirs of a President. New York: Bantam Books, 1982, pp.118-19.
23. N.Y. Post, July 11, 1979, p.21.
24. Ibid.
25. For a psychological explanation of the roots of blood sacrifice, see deMause, Foundations, chapter 7
26. The Gallup Poll of May, 1978 reported 53.4% of adult Americans had had a lasting born-again Christian religious experience. For the sacrificial core of Christianity and its connections with human sacrifice, see Hyam Maccoby, The Sacred Executioner: Human Sacrifice and the Legacy of Guilt New York: Thames and Hudson,

References for pages 27-30 168

1982. Also see sections on sacrifice in deMause, Foundations, Chapter 7
27. For a brilliant analysis of the process of setting the sacrificial stage, see Casper 0. Schmidt, "The Use of the Gallup Poll as a Psychohistorical Tool." The Journal of Psychohistory 10(1982). I have followed Schmidt in all the references to the Gallup Poll in this book.
28 See full references to these events in deMause, Foundations, pp. 304-5.
29. Newsweek, June 11, 1979, p.71
30. For a full theoretical and empirical description of this process of deflecting rage from the leader to an outside "enemy," see deMause, Foundations, Chapters 5-7.
31. Ralph G. Martin, A Hero for Our Time. N.Y.: Macmillan, 1983.
32. Terence Smith, "Why Carter Admitted the Shah," N.Y. Times Magazine, May 28, 1981, p.37; Document reportedly obtained by Rep. George Hansen, for which see N.Y. Post report, November 28, 1979, p.2.
33. Jimmy Carter, Keeping Faith, p.455.
34. The Carter quote can be found in three substantively similar ver-sions: N.Y. Times, November 18, 1979, p.1; Newsweek, November 19, 1979, p.68; and Carter, Keeping Faith, p.455.
35. The full story of the lie can be seen clearly in Terence Smith, "Why Carter Admitted the Shah," N.Y. Times Magazine, May 28, 1981, p. 36; Lawrence K. Altman, "The Shah's Health: A Political Gamble," N.Y. Times Magazine, May 28, 1981, p.50; Roy A. Chilas, Jr., "The Iranian Drama," The Libertarian Review, February, 1980, pp.26-37; Hamilton Jordan, Crisis: The Last Year of the Carter Presidency. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1982, p. 31; and Michael Ledeen and William Lewis, Debacle: The American Failure in Iran. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1981, p.220. Dr. Kean's suit against the journal Science also confirmed his giving of advice that the Shah could have been treated in Mexico; see N.Y. Times, May 26, 1981 p. C2. Only Terence Smith, in the article cited at the beginning of this reference, wondered why 'One option that, curiously, was never seriously examined was the evacuation of em-bassy personnel prior to admitting the Shah."
36. The switch in mood is examined in Betty Glad, Jimmy Carter: In Search of the Great White House. New York: W. W. Norton, 1981, p.468; quote from New Yorker, December 24, 1979, p.27.
37. DeMause, Foundations, p.307.
38. N.Y. Post, November 9, 1979, p.2, November 12, 1979, p.3 and December 4, 1979, p.3; Carter quote from Hamilton Jordan, Crisis, p.55.
39. N.Y. Times, November 25, 1979, p.16.

References for pages 31-38 169

40. James Brady, N.Y. Post, December 17, 1979, p.26.
41. Newsweek, July 12, 1982, p.16; N.Y. Times Magazine, April 18,
1982, p.28.
42. N.Y. Daily News, January19, 1980, p.1.
43. William F. Buckley, Jr., N.Y. Post, March 11, 1980, p.23.
44. N.Y. Post, February 2, 1980, p.18.
45. N.Y. Times, January 30, 1980, p. A18.
46. Time, January 14, 1980, p.32.
47. N.Y. Post, December 15, 1979, p.7
48. New Republic, March 15, 1980, p.12.
49. Village Voice, February 25, 1980, p.16; N.Y. Post, January 8, 1980, p.3; Time, April 21, 1980, p.14; New Yorker, April 28,1980, p.33; N.Y. Times, April13, 1980, p. 1E
50. Newsweek, July 12, 1980, p. 16; Drew Middleton, "Going the Military Route," N.Y. Tlmes Magazine, May 28, 1981, p.103.
51. N.Y. Times, May15, 1980, p.1; N.Y. Times, April18, 1980, p.1.
52. N.Y. Post, April 9, 1980, p.1.
53. Andrew Young, "Penthouse Interview," Penthouse, February,
1983, p.142.
54. Richard Nixon, on the Barbara Walters Special, ABC-TV, June 10,
55. Russell Baker, N.Y. Times, May 3, 1980, p.23, described accurately what it felt like to be "choking" on a "bone in the throat" from our own "powerlessness."

"Where's the Rest of Me?"

1. Ronald Reagan, Where's the Rest of Me? New York: Karz Publishers, 1981(1965), pp.4-6.
2. For a brilliant psychohistorical analysis of the theme of punishment for sexual desires in King's Row and its connection with Reagan's personality, see Michael Rogin, "Ronald Reagan: Where's the Rest of Him." Democracy, April, 1981, pp.33-38 and Michael Rogin, "Ronald Reagan's American Gothic." Democracy, October, 1981, pp.51-59.
3. Lou Cannon, Reagan. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1982, p.
226; R WR: The Official Ronald Wilson Reagan Quote Book. St.
Louis: Chain-Pinkham Books, 1980, p.11.
4. Reagan's supposed "difficulty" in drawing extremities is belied by some of his doodles where they are quite competently drawn; for examples and references, see Kathy Randall Davis, But What's He Really Like? Menlo Park, California: Pacific Coast Publishers,

References for pages 39-42 170

1970, p.94; U.S. News & World Report, July 6, 1981, p.19; New York Post, March 28, 1981, p.25.
5. Bill Boyarsky, The Rise of Ronald Reagan. New York: Random
House, 1968, p.196.
6. Lou Cannon, Ronnie and Jessie: A Political Odyssey. New York: Doubleday and Co., 1969, p.177.
7. Ibid.
8. Cannon, Reagan, p.25.
9. Reagan, Where's the Rest of Me ?, pp.7-9.
10. Frank van der Linden, The Real Reagan. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1981, pp.30 and 52.
11. Reagan, Where's the Rest of Me?, pp.9 and 11.
12. For a general survey of the evolution of childrearing, see Lloyd deMause, Editor, The History of Childhood. New York: Psychohistory Press, 1974; for more detailed analysis on American childrearing during Reagan's childhood, see Glenn Davis, Childhood and History in America. New York: Psychohistory Press, 1976.
13. Van der Linden, The Real Reagan, p.38.
14. Reagan, Where's the Rest of Me?, p.16.
15. Reagan to Mark Shields, "President Reagan's Wide World of Sports." Inside Sports, March 31, 1981, p.26.
16. Van der Linden, The Real Reagan, pp.31 and 74.
17. Ibid, p.73.
18. Cannon, Reagan, p.93.
19. Charles D. Hobbs, Ronald Reagan's Call to Action. Nashville:
Thomas Nelson, 1976, p.23.
20. For a description of the dynamics of phobic fears, see Leon Salzman, Treatment of the Obsessive Personality. New York: Jason Aronson, 1980, pp.105-121.
21. Sigmund Freud, "The Interpretation of Dreams," Standard Edi-tion, 4, p.260.
22. Obituary in The New York Times, May 19, 1941, p.17.
23. Laurence Leamer, "The Great Pretenders," California Magazine, April, 1983, p.154.
24. Van der Linden, The Real Reagan, p.621.
25. Bill Boyarsky, Ronald Reagan: His Life & Rise to the Presidency. New York: Random House, 1981, pp.29 and 49.
26. Reagan, Where's the Rest of Me?, p.195.
27. Cannon, Reagan, p.30.
28. Reagan, Where's the Rest of Me?, p.195.
29. For a description of the mechanism of injecting wishes into others for purposes of control, see Thomas H. Ogden, Projective Iden-

References for pages 42-48 171

tification and Psychotherapeutic Technique. New York: Jason Aronson, 1982.
30. Reagan, Where's the Rest of Me?, pp.6-7.
31. Cannon, Reagan, p.90.
32. F. Clifton White and William J. Gill, Why Reagan Won. New York: Regnery Gateway, 1981, p.23.
33. Cannon, Reagan, p.148.
34. Boyarsky, Ronald Reagan, p.140
35. Van der Linden, The Real Reagan, p.82.
36. Boyarsky, The Rise of Ronald Reagan, p.23.
37. George H. Smith, Who Is Ronald Reagan? New York: Pyramid Books, 1968, p.115.
38. The Wall Street Journal, August 1, 1980, p.32.
39. Edmund G. Brown and Bill Brown, Reagan: The Politkal Chameleon. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1976, pp.46 and 123.
40. Ibid.
41. Smith, Who Is Ronald Reagan?, p.95.
42. Ibid, p.124.
43. Van der Linden, The Real Reagan, p.91.
44. Hedrick Smith, Adam Clymer, Leonard Silk, Robert Lindsey and Richard Burt, Reagan the Man, the President. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1980, p.47
45. Cited in Robert Scheer, "The Reagan Question," Playboy, August, 1980, p.248.
46. Cannon, Reagan, p.152.
47. Otto Fenichel, The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis. New York:
W. W Norton & Co., 1945, pp.211-212.
48 For a thorough discussion regarding the lawfulness of wars, including the seeming exception to the rule about wars not occurring during the first year of the presidency, the American Civil War, see deMause, Foundations, Chapters 5-7.
49. Ibid, p.160.
50. Ibid, pp.155-157.
51. Ibid, p.211.
52. For detailed descriptions of Johnson's need to persecute others for his own disavowed traits, see Robert A. Caro, The Years of Lyndon
Johnson: The Path to Power. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982, and Doris Kearnes, Lyndon Johnson & the American Dream. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. Psychohistorical study has not yet begun on Truman.
53. John Deardourff to Martin Smith, "Reagan's Latest Campaign Brings Same Message, But New Audience." Sacramento Bee, November 18, 1979.

References for pages 49-53 172

54. For an analysis of the various polls after the debate, see Cannon, Reagan, p.298.
55. Newsweek, November 29, 1982, p.44.
56. For a history of Reagan's advocacy of military force as a response to dozens of past political events abroad, see Murray N. Rothbard, "The Two Faces of Ronald Reagan." Inquiry, July 7, 1980, pp. 16-19.

"Cut, Slash, Chop"

1. Alvin H. Hansen, Fiscal Policy and Business Cycles. New York: Norton, 1941, pp.18-24.
2. Maurice N. Walsh, ed., War and the Human Race. New York: Elsevier, 1971, p.78.
3. Paul A. Samuelson, Economics. Eleventh Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1980, p.244.
4. Robert E. Lucas, Jr., Studies in Business-Cycle Theory. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1981, p.226.
5. For the psychogenic theory of the basis of technological progress in the evolution of childrearing, see deMause, Foundations, Chapter 4. The comparative study of primitive economics centers on the work of Karl Polanyi and his associates; see George Dalton, ed. Primitive, Archaic and Modern Economics: Essays of Karl Polanyi. Com-parative anthropological study of primitive economics began in earnest with the work of M J. Herkovits; see his Economic Anthropology. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1952.
6. See deMause, Foundations, pp.16 and 274 and deMause, "Comments on Lloyd deMause's 'Fetal Origins of History,"' The Journal of Psychoanalytic Anthropology 5(1982): 483-4.
7. See, for instance, Theodore H. Gaster, Thespis: Ritual, Myth and Drama in the Ancient Near East. New York: Harper & Row, n.d.
8. The description given here of the ritual cycles of the Kwakiutl is taken from Irving Goldman, The Mouth of Heaven: An Introduction to Kwakiutl Religious Thought. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1975; Stanley Walens, Feasting With Cannibals: An Essay on Kwakiutl Cosmology. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981; Helen Codere, ed. Franz Boas: Kwakiutl Cosmology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966; Franz Boas, Kwakiutl Culture as Reflected in Mythology. New York: G. B. Stechert, 1935; Franz Boas, "The Social Organization and the Secret Societies of the Kwakiutl Indians," in Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, June 30, 1895, Washington, D.C., 1897; Helen Codere, Fighting With Property: A Study of Kwakiutl Potlatching and Warfare 1792-1930. Seattle: University of Washington

References for pages 54-57 173

Press, 1950; Philip Drucker and Robert F. Heizer, To Make My
Name Good: A Reexamination of the Southern Kwakiutl Potlatch.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967.
9. Walens, Feasting With Cannibals, pp. 12-15.
10. K. Oberg, "The Kingdom of Ankole in Uganda," in Meyer Fortes and E. E. Evans-Pritchard, eds., African Polkical Systems. London:
Oxford University Press, 1940.
11. Melville J. Herskovits, Dahomey: An Ancient West African Kingdom. 2 vols. New York: J. J. Augustin, 1938. For the placental origins of all poison containers, religious or political, see deMause, Foundations, Chapter 7
12. See Codere, Fighting With Property. Surplus-destruction is also one of the functions of the "cargo cults" of newly-contacted primitives.
13. A recent bibliography can be found in Patricia R. Anawalt, "Understanding Aztec Human Sacrifice." Archaeology 35(1982):
14. Burr C. Brundage, The Fifth Sun: Aztec Gods, Aztec World. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979.
15. Ibid., Chapter 9.
16. Ibid., pp.205-8.
17. It is significant that this 52-year cycle of the Aztecs, roughly once a lifetime, corresponds very closely to the so-called Kondratieff cycle every 50 years in business activity.
18. The basic analysis is contained in Harvey Brenner, "Estimating the Social Costs of National Economic Policy: Implications for Mental and Physical Health and Clinical Aggression." Joint Economic Committee, U. S. Congress. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976.1 have extended their figures by the increase in unemployment rate for the period 1981-84, estimating the final year at 8 percent average, and adjusting Brenner's figures for total death rates to the overall increase in work force since the 1940-73 base period of their study. Also see references in Sidney Cobb and Stanislaw Kasl, "Termination: The Consequences of Job Loss," Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Washington, D.C., U. S. Government Printing Office, June 1977; Don Stillman, "The Devastating Impact of Plant Relocations," Working Papers 5(1978): 49; Stanislaw Kasl, Susan Gore, and Sidney Cobb, "The Experience of Losing a Job: Reported Changes in Health, Symptoms and Illness Behavior," Psychosomatic Medicine 37 (1975), pp. 10&22; Barry Bluestone and Bennett Harrison, The Deindustrialization of America. New York: Basic Books, 1982, pp.6346; and special issue of American Journal of Orthopsychiatry (October 1983) on childhood deaths caused by Reaganomics.

References for pages 58-60 174

19. See Arthur E. Rowse, One Sweet Guy And What He Is Doing To You. Washington, D.C.: Consumer News, Inc., 1981; Tracy Freedman and David Weir, "Polluting the Most Vulnerable." The Na-tion, May 14, 1983, pp.600-603; Barry Bluestone and Bennett Harrison, Deindustrialization of America, pp. 63-65; Robert Pear, "Non Profit Groups Are Losing U.S. Aid." New York Times, September 2, 1982, p. AlS; "Should Congress Reduce Funds for Child Nutrition?" New York Times, December 1, 1982, pp. Cl and C19; "Poor Lands, at U.N., Deplore World Economy." New York Times, October 14, 1982, p. A6; "Worst Slump in 50 Years Stifles Global Economy." Washington Post, January 9, 1983, p.61; Marshall L. Mati, " 'Bye, School Lunches For the 'Truly Needy."'New York Times, February 23, 1981, p. A30; and Frances Fox Piven and Richard A. Cloward, The New Class War: Reagan's Attack on the Welfare State and Its Consequences. New York: Pantheon Books, 1982.
20. Rowse, One Sweet Guy, p 151.
21. The Washington Post, June 5, 1983, p. A16.
22. For a description of the theory of psychoclass evolution, see deMause, Foundations, Chapter 4 and Glenn Davis, Childhood and History in America. New York: Psychohistory Press, 1976.
23. It is astonishing how simple it was for Germany to turn off the 2,000 printing presses in September, 1923, when Schacht stabilized the Mark in one week. See Adam Fergusson, When Money Dies: The Nightmare of Weimar Collapse. London: William Kimber, 1975, p. 210.
24. Paul Parin, Fritz Morgenthaler, Goldy Parin-Matthey, Fear Thy Neighbor as Thyself: Psychoanalysis and Society Among the Anyi of West Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980, p.29.
25. William Greider, "The Education of David Stockman," The Atlantic Monthly, December, 1981, p.51.
26. As Business Week pointed out, "the nation's biggest corporations are sitting atop a record $80 billion pile of ready cash that could finance a grand boom in capital spending. . . tax measures aimed at generating [even] more cash as a way to stimulate investment probably would not do the trick." "Money is There for the Capital Spending," Business Week, September 18, 1978, pp.97-126. For the argument that "the problem was not with the supply of capital funds, but rather the old Keynesian issue of inadequate demand," see Bluestone and Harrison, The Deindustrialization of America, p. 198. The Federal Reserve Study which reached identical conclusions is studied in H. Brand, "A Growing Burden on the Workers." Dissent, Spring, 1983, p.138.
27. Senator Baker's comments were made on Meet The Press, WCBS-TV, August 2, 1981.

References for pages 60-65 175

28. On doctors attributing illness to overindulgence in food and sex, see K. Codell Carter, "On the Decline of Bloodletting in Nineteenth Century Medicine." Journal of Psychoanalytic Anthropology 5(1982): 219-34.
29. James Tobin, "The Reagan Economic Plan: Supply-Side, Budget and Inflation," in Richard H. Fink, ed., Supply-Side Economks: A Critical Appraisal. Frederick, Md.: University Publications of America, 1982, p.337. Also see John Kenneth Gaibraith, "Recession Economics." New York Review of Books, February 4, 1982, p. 34.
30. Greider, "The Education of David Stockman," p.32.
31. Ibid, p.32.
32. Alexander Cock,burn and James Ridgeway, "The Economics of Warand Peace (Interview with Seymour Melman.)" Village Voice, April 26, 1983. Also see literature cited in James Fallows, "The Great Defense Deception." New York Review of Books, May 28, 1981, pp. 15-19.
33. The history of polls on military spending is reviewed in Ben Wattenberg, "Most of the People Still Want More. Defense." The Washington Post, December 12, 1982, p. CS.
34. George Gilder, Wealth and Poverty. New York: Basic Books, 1981, p.114.
35. Clelia D. Mosher, The Mosher Survey: Sexual Attitudes of 45 Victorian Women. Edited by James Hood and Kristine Wenburg. New York: Arno Press, 1980.
36. This U.S News cover illustrates a common symbolic technique of Opposing two feelings graphically, so that it is read by the un-conscious as saying that "The Reagan Revolution" with its "tax and budget cuts" is opposed to (above, superior to) "Our Endless Pursuit of Happiness."
37. Interview with George Gilder in The Soho News, December 22, 198),
p.16. See also Zillah R. Eisenstein, "The Sexual Politics of the New
Right: Understanding the 'Crisis of Liberalism' for the 1980s."
Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 7(1982): 567-88.
38. The Village Voice, November 18-24, 1981, p.21.
39. New York Times Magazine, January 18, 1981.
40. New York Times, November 20, 1980, p. A34.
41. TRB, The New Republic, February 14, 1981, p.2.
42. Independent News TV, January 30, 1981, 10:30 P.M.
43. James P. Gannon, Des Moines Sunday Register, February 22, 1981, p. 7A.
44. Maxwell Newton, New York Post, July 28, 1982, p.49.
45. Cited in Lou Cannon, Reagan, p.406

References for pages 65-73 176

46. Washington Post, January 2, 1983, p. Fl.
47. Gregg Easterbrook, "The Myth of Oppressive Corporate Taxes," The Atlantic Monthly, June 1982, p.59.
48. New York Times, June 7, 1981, p.22.
49. U.S. News & World Report, July 20, 1981, p.34.
50. Washington Post, July 27, 1981, p.34.
51. New York Times, June 28, 1981, p. lE.
52. Time, July 6, 1981, p.6.
53. The castration imagery was first analyzed by Rogin, "Ronald Reagan's American Gothic," p.58.
54. Laurence Barrett, Gambling With History: Reagan in the White House. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Co., 1983, p.275.

"Laser Eyes"

1. U.S. News & World Report, September 28, 1981, pp.64-5.
2. Jo Ann S. Putnam-Scholes, "An Epidemic of Publicity." Atlantic, July, 1983, pp.18-19.
3. Daily News, March 14,1982, p. C2.
4. Frederick Thayer, "Strike Means Friendly Skies For Airlines." Harper's, December, 1981, p.19
S. Barrett, Gambling With History, p.204.
6. New York Times, August 9, 1981, p. lE.
7. For the insight that Qaddafi was Reagan's "out of control" double, I am indebted to Casper Schmidt, as is the case with so many of the interpretations throughout this book.
8. Haig admitted the "cancer" quote on ABC's "Issues and Answers" program, August 23, 1981.
9. The best reconstruction of the incident can be found in Barrett, Gambling With History, pp.211-13.
10. Chicago Tribune, August 23, 1981, p.1.
11. Ibid., p.212.
12. Ibid., p.95.
13. Time, August 31, 1981, p.10.
14. DailyNews, August21, 1981, p.1.
15. New York Post, August 24, 1981, p.7.
16. Time, August 31, 1981, p.12.
17. Los Angeles Times, Augus t23, 1981, Part VI, p.1.
18. New York Times, October 10, 1981, p.1.
19. In fact, because the Fed's high interest rates caused funds to flow in-to the U.S. and over-strengthen the dollar, foreign trade dropped even more than total auto sales and housing in 1981; see C. Fred

References for pages 74-80 177

Bergsten, "The Main Cause of the Recession," New York Times, December 21, 1981, p. A27.
20. Newsweek, December 21, 1981, p.63.
21. Washington Post, December 13, 1981, p.30.
22. The best account of the rumor is in The Soho News, December 15, 1981, p.13.
23 Jack Anderson, New York Post, June 7, 1982, p.33; San Francisco Chronicle, January 4, 1982, p.1.
24. Fridays, ABC-TV, December 18, 1981.
25. Today, NBC-TV, December 18, 1981.
26. Although the U.S. Department of State claimed that "1980 was a record year for international terrorism" (Richard T. Kennedy, Senate Foreign Relations Committee Testimony, June 10, 1981), they admitted that they had only kept statistics for a decade, that their figures were increasingly accurate as time went on and that only 10 Americans were killed in 1980 all over the world, a tragic waste of life, but hardly the "wave of terrorism" which Reagan called "our number one problem."
27 See Lloyd deMause, editor, The History of Childhood. New York: Psychohistory Press, 1974, and Davis, Childhood and History in America.
28 For a full analysis of the Wolf Man case, from his treatment by Freud to his later treatment by Ruth Mack Brunswick, see M. Gar-diner, ed., The Wolf Man by the Wolf Man. New York: Basic Books, 1971. My interpretation disagrees with Freud's, which sees the staring wolf eyes as projections of the patient's own staring eyes during the primal scene. Historically, the staring eyes so often betray maternal qualities that they cannot be oedipal projections alone, and must be pre-oedipal.
29 For the Eye of Horus, see Renri Frankfort, Kingship and the Gods: A Study of Ancient Near Eastern Religion as the Integration of Society & Nature. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978, pp.
107-9, 127.
30. Washington Post, July 8, 1981, p. Al.
31. Jack Anderson, "Strangling the Child-Abuse Program." Washington Post, April 4, 1982, p. C7.
32. See, as examples, Kenneth A. Noble, "Are Program Cuts Linked to Increased Infant Deaths?" New York Times, February 13, 1983, p. 6E; Barrett, Gambling With History, pp.404-S; Lester C. Thurow, "A Rising Tide of Poverty," Newsweek, July 11, 1983, p. 62; Robert Pear, "Job Cuts Cause Loss of Health Coverage For Over 16 Million," New York Times, October 31, 1982, p. 1; Newsweek, April 5, 1982, pp.17-27; Arthur E. Rowse, One Sweet Guy And What He Is Doing To You. Washington, D.C.: Consumer News, 1981.

References for pages 80-86 178

33. WPBS-TV, September 12, 1981.
34. Barrett, Gambling With History, p.361.
35. Harrison J. Goldin, "Relieve Hunger with 1 Cent." New York Times, November 26, 1982, p. A27. For figures on the cheese distribution, see New York Times, January 7, 1982, p. C9, and New York Times, July 19, 1983, p. B7.
36. See footnote 28 of Chapter 1 of this book.
37. Reagan address to International Association of Chiefs of Police, September 28, 1981.
38. New York Post, October 5, 1981, p.3.
39. Washington Post, September 26,1981, p. A23.
40. Ibid.
41. Los Angeles Times, December 5, 1982, Part IV, p.5.
42. Los Angeles Times, March21, 1982, p.1.
43. The Washington Spectator, November 1, 1981, p.2.
44. The Washington Monthly, July, August, 1982, pp.7 and 37.
45. Newsweek, March 8, 1982, p.77; U.S. News & World Report, September 21, 1981, cover.
46. Greider, "Education of David Stockman," p.51.
47. Lewis Lapham, Washington Post, September 26, 1981, p. A23.
48. New York Times, September 20, 1981, p. El.
49. New York, November 2, 1981, p. A3.
50. Washington Post, November 22, 1981, p. A3.
51. New York, November 2, 1981, p.19
52. New York Times, February 15, 1982, p. A12.
53. Washington Post, January 24, 1982, p.1.
54. Washington Post, April 4, 1982, p. A3.
55. New York Times, February 8, 1982, p. A19.
56. Washington Post, November 8, 1981, p. A2.
57. Washington Post, September 27, 1981, p. A3.
58. WNBC-TV, Six O'Clock News, March 23, 1982.
59. WNET-TV, The MacNeil-Lehrer Report, December 17, 1981.
60. New York Times, December 11,1981, p. A22.
61. Newsweek, November 16, 1981, p.88.
62. Mother Jones, August 1983, p.52.
63. Miami Herald, March21, 1982, p. Fl.
64. WNET-TV, October 7, 1981.
65. New York Times, January 2, 1983, p. 14E.
66. WNBC-TV, Six O'Clock News, November 12, 1981.
67. Newsweek, April 12, 1982, p.18.
68. Washington Post, March 21, 1982, p. DS.
69. New York Times, May 27, 1982, p. B22.
70. Washington Post, May 2, 1982, p. A2.

References for pages 87-95 179

71. Evidence that actual memories of birth are remembered and replayed during group-fantasies is presented in deMause, Foundations, Chapter 7, "The Fetal Origins of History."
72. New York Post, March 2, 1982, p.15.
73. New York Times, March 16, 1982, p. A22.
74. New York Post, April 16,1982, p.70.
75. Ibid.

"What a Cute Little War."

1. Washington Post, April 25, 1982, p. A21.
2. Max Hastings and Simon Jenkins, The Battle for the Falklands. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1983, p.325.
3. All the British "mistakes"- actually hidden messages-are detailed in ibid, pp.1-60 and in the Sunday Times of London Insight Team, War in the Falklands: The Full Story. New York: Harper & Row, 1982.
4. Hastings and Jenkins, Battle for the Falklands, p.65.
5. The Nation, March 6, 1982, p.261; the Cuban blockade scheme is mentioned by Jorge Luis Borges in Tad Szulc, "A Voice of Peace, Alone." Parade, November 14,1982, p.S. The blockade was first suggested by Reagan in his election campaign; see Ronnie Dugger, On Reagan. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1983, p.360.
6. Hastings and Jenkins, Battle for the Falklands, pp.103 and 173.
7. For evidence of Galtieri's conviction that the U.S would back him on the invasion, see the New York Times, May 2, 1982, p. 2E, The New Republic, June 9, 1982, p.12 and Newsweek, May 17, 1982, p. 30.
8. For the process of delegation of hidden family wishes, see Helm Stierlin, Separating Parents and Adolescents. New York, 1974.
9. Hastings and Jenkins, Battle for the Falklands, p.108.
10. Inquiry, May 17, 1982, p.8.
11. New York Post, April 6, 1982, p.35.
12. Newsweek, April 26, 1982, p.92.
13. "Nightline," WABC-TV, May 20, 1982.
14. Washington Post, May 30,1982, p. C8.
15. Time, January 24, 1964, p.54.
16. Doris Kearns, Lyndon Johnson and the American Dream. New
York: Harper & Row, 1976, p.251. Also see Chapter 3, "War" in
Susan Brownmiller, Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape. New
York: Simon & Schuster, 1975

References for pages 95-104 180

17. For details on Vietnam group-fantasies, see David Beisel, "The Psychohistorical Origins of the Vietnam War," Journal of Psychohistory 11(1984): in press.
18. "Vietnam: A Television History. Part 5." WPBS-TV, October 25, 1983.
19. Ibid., Part 4, October 18,1983.
20. New York Post, May 14, 1982, p.5.
21. New York Times, April 7,1982, p. A23.
22. Hastings and Jenkins, Battle for the Falklands, p.340.
23. Here, again, the cover artist puts the headline "Mideast Nightmare: Search for a Way Out?" over "End of the Permissive Society," a layout which represents to the unconscious that the "nightmare" of war in the mideast is a "way out" from "the permissive society."
24. The language is that of Reagan's friendly biographer, Laurence Barrett, Gambling With History, p.271.
25. The admission by Sharon of Reagan's secret agreement was revealed on "Nightline," WABC-TV, June 24,1981.
26. Personal communication, Paul Smirnoff, Executive Producer, Metromedia News. President Carter also said Israel had received approval from Washington for the invasion; see Dugger, On Reagan, p.388.
27. Barrett, Gambling With History, p.280.
28. Los Angeles Times, June 9, 1982, p.7
29. Rowland Evans and Robert Novak, New York Post, July 7, 1982,
30. Washington Post, July 4, 1982, p. Bl.
31. Village Voice, August 10, 1982, p.8.
32. Philadelphia Inquirer, July 3, 1981, p.1.
33. New York Post, June 15, 1981, p.27.
34. John Frosch, The Psychotic Process. New York: International Universities Press, 1983, pp.63-64.
35 Dugger, On Reagan, p.405.
36. Ibid., p.404.
37. New York Times, May 30, 1982.
38. New York Post October 21, 1981, p.12.
39. New Yorker, July 19, 1982, p.24.
40. See William Martin, "Waiting For End," The Atlantic The Monthly, June 1982, pp.31-37.
41. Esquire, November 1982, p.16.
42. New York Times, November 12, 1981, p.24.
43. Dugger, On Reagan, p.394.
44. For references to all three levels of Aztec sacrifice, see Brundage, The Fifth Sun.

References for pages 105-110 181

45. New York Times, September 30, 1982, p.1.
46. Washington Post, October 25, 1983, p. A6.
47. Daily News, October 25, 1983, p.S.
48. Daily News, November 5, 1982, p.2.
49. New York Times, November 5,1983, p.7
50. Casper Schmidt, "The Use of the Gallup Poll as a Psychohistorical Tool," Journal of Psychohistory 10 (1982):141-162; Casper Schmidt, "A Differential Poison Index from the Gallup Poll," Journal of Psychohistory 10(1983): 523-532; Casper Schmidt and Lloyd deMause, "An Update on Reagan's America: Group-Fantasies on the Way to Collapse.". Fifth Annual Convention, International Psychohistorical Association, Hunter College, June 12, 1982; radio broadcasts on National Public Radio Network and WBAI.
51 Lt. Col. John H. Buchanan, "Honduras/Nicaragua-War Without Winners," testimony of September 21, 1982, reprinted in NACLA Report on the Americas, September/October 1982, pp.2-10.
52. Cited in The New Republic, October 24, 1983, p.7.
53. Boyarsky, Ronald Reagan, pp.35-38.
54. T. D. AlIman, "Reagan's Manifest Destiny." Harper's, September 1983, pp. 30-39; Walter LeFeber, Inevitable Revolutions: The United States in Central America. New York: W. W. Norton Co., 1983.
55. As the Washington Post put it, "Some diplomats in the area are disturbed about the way in which the Vietnam hands suddenly latched onto Central America, as if it were a solid rung on their career ladder after years of drifting in the wake of Vietnam." (November 28, 1982, p. C3)
56. Time, October 17, 1983, p.49.
57. Case history described to author by Casper Schmidt, M.D.
58. Washington Post, May 9,1982, p. A21.
59. Newsweek, November 7, 1983, p.137; Janet Raloff, "Beyond Armageddon," Science News, November 12,1983, pp.314-17.
60 Stuart D. Asch, "Suicide, and the Hidden Executioner." Interna-tional Review of Psycho-Analysis 7(1980): 51-60.
61. Dugger, On Reagan, p.401; Robert Scheer With Enough Shovels: Reagan, Bush & Nuclear War. New York: Random House, 1983; Fred Kaplan, The Wizards of Armageddon. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983.
62. Dugger, On Reagan, p.400.
63. Gallup poll, cited in Newsweek, October 5, 1981, p.35.
64. Patrick O'Heffernan, Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins, The First Nuclear World War. New York: William Morrow & Co., 1983, pp.158-9.

References for pages 111-119 182

65. Ibid., pp.16, 163-4.
66. Ibid., p.156.
67. Ibid., p.241.
68. Ibid., pp.15-57.
69. Ibid., p. 418; the statement was by Rep. Downey, about the 10-minute delivery time of Trident 2, and is even more applicable to the 6-minute delivery time of Pershing 2.
70. Chicago Tribune, January 9, 1983, p.1.

"There's a Virus in Our Bloodstream"

1. Cited in The New Leader, October 5, 1982, p.7.
2. Robert Furlow, "Treasury Maps Out Record Borrowing," New York Post, July 29, 1982, p.42; "Bankruptcies Still Soar," Richmond Times-Dispatch, September 2, 1982, p. El; Peter Kilborn, "Study Finds Low '82 Level for Unemployment Claims," New York Times, September 9, 1983, p. D17; Marion Wright Edelman, "Death By Poverty, Arms, Or Moral Numbness" American Journal of Or-thopsychiatry 53 (1983): 593-601; Robert Reno, "Children Carry Poverty Burden," Newsday, August 7, 1983, p.78; Peter Kilborn, "Americans Saving Less Now Than Before the '81 Tax Act," New York Times, September 6, 1983, p.1; Jack Egan, "Banks on the Brink," New York, October 25, 1982, p.28.
3. WNBC-TV, "Nightly News," November 3, 1982.
4. Time, December 13, 1982, p.12.
5. Metromedia News, July 11, 1982.
6. WABC-TV, December 24, 1982.
7. Maxwell Newton, New York Post, January 4, 1983, p.39.
8. Steven R. Weisman, "Reaganomics and the President's Men," New York Times Magazine, October 24, 1982, pp.26-27.
9. Newsweek, December 13, 1982, p.70. For evidence that we were repeating actual memories of the failing placenta, our first "heart," see deMause, Chapter 7, "Fetal Origins of History," Foundations.
10. Atlantic Monthly, April, 1983, p.10.
11. David Beisel, Dance of Death. An Inquiry Into the Origins of the Second World War. Forthcoming.
12. New York Times, June 6, 1982, p. 20E.
13. New York Post, April 28, 1982, p.39.
14. Reagan said this on January 25, 1983, in reference to drug pushers.
15. See New York Times, November 30, 1982, p.1; The Nation, June
18, 1983, pp.754-s; New York Times, November 28, 1983, p.23.
16. Daily News, September 10, 1982, p.39.

References for pages 119-126 183

17. For details, see Cannon, Reagan, p.288 and Rowse, One Sweet Guy, p.84.
18 Tony Thomas, The Films of Ronald Reagan. Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel Press, 1981, p.61.
19. Speech by Roosevelt rebroadcast on WNET-TV, August 9, 1983. This paranoid fear of infection from refugees was the real reason why America kept Jews out for so long and didn't save more of them.
20. U.S. News, September 16, 1963, pp.98-101.
21. Time, August 2, 1982, cover.
22. Reader's Digest, February, 1983, cover.
23. Mother Jones, November 1982, p.36.
24. Reagan's phallic charts showing American impotence are reproduced in The New York Times, November 23, 1982, p. A12.
25. See Casper Schmidt, "The Fantasy Structure of AIDS, and Other Forms of Epidemic hysteria." Journal of Psychohistory 11(1984): forthcoming.
26. See Tim Reiterman, Raven: The Untold Story of The Rev. Jim Jones and His People. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1983. The Jonestown parallel was pointed out to me by Casper Schmidt.
27. The Des Moines Sunday Register, October 17, 1982, p.1.
28. Time, February 23, 1981, p.12.
29. New York Post, October 1, 1982, p.1.
30. National Enquirer, October 6, 1982, p.2; New York Post, October 1, 1982, p.1.
31. New York Post, December 15, 1982, p.2.
32. New York Post, October 22, 1982, p.4; ibid., October 26, 1982, p. 2; ibid., January 25, 1983, p.s; Time, November 8, 1982, p.27.
33. New York Post, October 29, 1982, p.1.
34. Time, November 8, 1982, p.27; Washington Post, October31, 1982, p. A22.
35. New York Times, November 3, 1982, p. A27.
36. Village Voice, March 22, 1983, p.18.
37. New York, February 7, 1983, p.42.
38. New York Times, October 20, 1983, p. B7.
39. Chicago Tribune, June 6, 1982, p.1, Section 2.
40. Kansas Chy Star, January 20, 1983, p.1.
41. USA Today, June 23, 1983, p.1; New York Times, June 25, 1983, p.1.
42. The first sentence for chemical castration was given in February, 1982; for a summary of the sentences, see Washington Post, December 24, 1983, p. A7
43. National Review, November 11, 1983, p.1411.
44. New York, June 20, 1983, p.27.

References for pages 126-136 185

45. See Chapter 7, deMause, Foundations. For strikingly similar group-fantasies among the Freikorps, see Klaus Theweleit, Maennerphantasien. Frankfurt: Roter Stern Verlag, 1977
46. New York, June 20, 1983, p.28; Washington Post, July 11, 1983, p.1.
47. New York Times, August 7, 1983, p. E21.
48. New York Times, December 5, 1983, p. B6.
49. New York Times, October 3, 1983, p.1.
50. Newsweek, August 8, 1983, p.30.
51. Cited in The Washington Post, January 30, 1983, p. A3.
52. Washington Post, January 16, 1983, p. A3.
53. William Schneider, Los Angeles Times, January 2, 1983, p. 1, Part IV
54. Washington Post, January 30, 1983, p. A3.
55. Washington Post, May 10, 1982, p. AlS.
56. New York Times, March 9, 1983, p. A18.
57. Cited in the Los Angeles Times, November 20, 1983, Part IV, p.1.
58. The citation is from Bowman's appearance on "The MacNeill-Lehrer News Hour," WNET-TV, November 10, 1983. Also see his statements in "Star Wars-Pie in the Sky," New York Times, December 14, 1983, p. A35.
59. Washington Post, March 26, 1983, p.1.
60. John Tirman, "Star Wars-From Scenario to Fact," The Nation, December 24, 1983, p.664.
61. William E. Burrows, "Skywalking With Reagan," Harper's, January 1984, p.56.
62 Reagan made this statement about Social Security to open his March
25, 1983 news conference, but the emotional content referred more to his dramatic Star Wars speech of two days earlier.
64. Jack Anderson, New York Post, December 26, 1983, p.21.
65. Washington Post, June 21, 1983, p. A7.
66. "Washington Week in Review," WNET-TV, October 7, 1983. The "poison spider" image is cited in Howard Stein, "The Scope of Psycho-Geography." Journal of Psychoanalytic Anthropology 7(1984): in press. On the immigration imagery, see James Fallows, "Immigration: How It's Affecting Us," The Atlantic Monthly, November 1983, pp.45-48.

"There's a Fire in Our Front Yard."

1. For Reagan's sudden shift upward in the polls after his March war speeches, see Time, July 18, 1983, pp.9-11.
2. Time, July 18, 1983, p. 14.

References for pages 136-141 185

3. Newsweek, March 14, 1983, p.16.
4 Time, March 21, 1983, p.12.
5. U.S. News, October 3, 1983, p.22.
6. Time, June 28, 1983, p.32.
7. New Republic, April 18, 1983, p.9.
8. Newsweek, March 21,1983, p.18.
9. Reagan used these action words in his April 19 statement on the President's Commission on Strategic Forces.
10. New Republic, April 4, 1983, p.7.
11. Ibid.
12. New York Times, March 30, 1983, p. A31.
13. Daily News, July 4,1983, p.2.
14. Washington Post, July 24, 1983, p. Cl; May 26, 1983, p. A3.
15. The full story of the BI approval can be found in the Dallas Times Herald, February 12, 1984, pp.1 and 6.
16. David Morrison, "Conventional Madness: The Next European War." Inquiry, February 1984, pp.21-24.
17. New York Times, March 6,1983, p. 1E.
18. "Face the Nation," WCBS-TV, May 23, 1983.
19. New York Times, March 6, 1983, p. 1E.
20. A summary of the buildup of these bases is in The Washington Post, February 17, 1984, p. A25.
21. New York Times, November 8, 1983, p. A12.
22. Washington Post, August 21, 1983, p. Cl.
23. New York Times, July 1, 1983, p.1.
24. For one priest's eyewitness account of contra terrorist raids and shooting of innocent women and children, see In These Times, February 8-14, 1984, p.16. For the CIA's contra pay scale, see Minneapolis Tribune, November 27, 1983, p.1.
25. Los Angeles Times, April 3, 1983, p.1.
26. New York Post, May 23, 1983, p.33.
27. New York Times, July 31, 1983, p.1.
28. Washington Post, July 27, 1983, p.1.
29. Newsweek, June 6, 1983, cover.
30. For how Honduran Gen. Martinez used the deaths of the two journalists to claim "the Sandanistas are attacking us," see USA Today, p. 7A. Few newspapers printed the later information that it was a mine - and not Nicaraguan artillery - that killed the journalists.
31. WCBS-TV, "Nightly News," July 23, 1983; New York Post, July
25, 1983, p.2.
32. New York Times, July 17, 1983, p.1.
33. Newsday, August 14, 1983, p.15.
34. Ibid.

References for pages 141-147 186

35. Washington Post, July 31, 1983, p. A3.
36. Time, August 1, 1983, p.10.
37. New York Times, July 23, 1983, p.1.
38. New York Post, July20, 1983, p.1.
39. Washington Post, July 25, 1983, p.1.
40. WABC-TV, "This Week With David Brinkley," July 24, 1983.
41. New York Times, July 28, 1983, p. All.
42. New York Times, July 22, 1983, p. A23.
43. New York Times, August 9, 1983, p. A23.
44. Newsday, August 7, 1983, p.6.
45. New York Times, July 24,1983, p.91.
46. Ibid.
47. Washington Post, July 31, 1983, p. D8.
48. Washington Post, July 26, 1983, p. AIO.
49. New York Times, July 26, p. A20.
50. Washington Post, August 2, 1983, p. A3.
51. Ibid.
52. New York Post, September 20, 1983, p.31.
53. U.S. News, July 25, 1983, cover.
54. Newsweek, September 12, 1983, p.44.
55. Time, September 12, 1983, p.14; Orlando Sentinel, September 11,
1983, p.01; Chicago Tribune, September 11, 1983, Sec. 4, p.1.
56. James Bamford, "The Last Flight of KAL 007." Washington Post Magazine, January 8, 1984, p.S.
57. Cited in The Washington Spectator, November 1, 1983, p.2.
58. Cited in the Village Voice, September 27, 1983, p. 14 and The Washington Spectator, November 1, 1983, p.3.
59. Bamford, "Last Flight," p.4; Miami Herald, September 11, 1983, p.1; R. W. Johnson, "KAL 007: Unanswered Questions." World Press Review, March 1984, pp.23-26.
60. Ibid., pp.4-8; David Baker, The Shape of Wars to Come. New York: Stein and Day, 1981, p.230.
61 Washington Post, December 31, 1983, p. A6; also see People, December 26, 1983, p.41 on the Melvin Belli Lawsuit.
62. Information on these points can be found in Bamford, "Last Flight," pp.4-8 and Washington Post, December 31, 1983, p. A6.
63. New York Times, October 7,1983, p.1.
64. Bamford, "Last Flight," p.6.
65. Village Voice, September 27, 1983, p.14.
66. Daily News, September 19, 1983, p.30.
67. WNBC-TV, "Eleven O'Clock News," September 1, 1983.
68. Orlando Sentinal, September 11, 1983, p. 01.
69. New York Post, September 3, 1983, p.1.
70. Chicago Tribune, October 2, 1983, Sec. 4, p.1.

References for pages 147-152 187

71. New York Times, September 2, 1983, p. A23.
72. A roundup of editorial reaction to KAL 007 can be found in William Boot, "Capital Letter," Columbia Journalism Review, November/December 1983, pp.27-30.
73. New York Times, September 25, 1983, p. lE.
74. Chicago Tribune, September 4, 1983, Sec. 1, p.12.
75. New York Times, September 3, 1983, p.7.
76. Newsweek, September 19, 1983, p.38.
77. WABC-TV, September 4, 1983.
78. WNBC-TV, September 4, 1983.
79. Metromedia News, September 8, 1983.
80. New York Post, September 13, 1983, p.29.
81. Washington Post, September 18, 1983. p. C7.
82. Metromedia News, September 8, 1983.
83. New York Post, September 26, 1983, p.31.

"The Wrath of Ron"

1. Inquiry, July 1983, p.17.
2. Sara Davidson, Friends of the Opposite Sex. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1984, p.61.
3. New York Post, September 13,1983, p.1.
4. The New Republlc, October 10, 1983, p.11.
5. Miami Herald, October 2, 1983, p. iD.
6. Washington Post, October 2, 1983, p. A3.
7. New York Times, October 2, 1983, p. E4.
8. Report of the DOD Commission on Beirut International Airport Terrorist Act, October 23, 1983. Department of Defense, 20 December 1983, pp.49-SO. 9. Ibid., pp.51 and 89.
10. New York Post, October 24, 1983, p.7; New York Times, October
25, 1983, p.1 and November 2, 1983, p.1.
11. New York Post, February 20, 1984, p.5.
12. For a thorough analysis of Reagan's apocalyptic beliefs, see Ronnie Dugger, "Does Reagan Expect a Nuclear Armageddon?" Washington Post, April 8, 1984, p. CI.
13. Time, January 2, 1984, p.56.
14. New York Times, October 25, 1983, p. A15.
15. New York Times, October 25, 1983, p. A10.
16. The quote on the killing of the son is from clips shown on "Night Line," WABC-TV, March 22, 1984; a full analysis of the "grief reporting" of Beirut can be found in C. Fraser Srnith, "Reporting

References for pages 152-155 188

Grief: Marine Families Review the Press Invasion," Washington Journalism Review, March 1984, pp.21-22, 58.
17. New York Times, October 26, 1983, p. A7.
18. Norman Kirkham, "Landing plan 6 months old," Sunday Telegraph [London], October 30, 1983, p.40.
19 The Economist, March 10, 1984, p.31; also see Washington Post, October 28, 1983, p.13.
20. The Atlanta Journal and Constitution, November 6, 1983, p.1.
21. Eyewitness accounts of the island the week of the invasion can be found in "Grenada: Diary of an invasion." Race & Class 23(1984):
15-26. Although the Department of Defense official report, "Grenada: A Preliminary Report," Washington, D. C., December 16, 1983, said "riots and looting were reported," no source is given for this statement (p. 36.)
22. Los Angeles Times, November 6,1983, Part IV, p.3.
23. Washington Post, October 26, 1983, p. All; New York Times, November 1 1983, p. A16.
24. Los Angeles Times, November 6, 1983, Part IV, p.3.
25. New York Times, October 25, 1983, p. A5.
26. Ibid.
27. New York Times, October 29, 1983, p.7.
28. Washington Post, October 27, 1983, p. A8.
29. Washington Post, November 15, 1983, p. A15.
30. William Steif, "Reagan's Island," The Progressive, January 1984, p.19.
31 U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs, "The Larger Importance of Greneda," November 4, 1983, p.4.
32. Dozens of similar U.S. "misinformations" are cited in New York Times, November 6, 1983, p.20.
33. Village Voice, November 22,1983, p.12.
34. Village Voice, November 8, 1983, p.8.
35. "Grenada: diary," p.20.
36. Washington Post, November 6, 1983, p.1.
37. "Nightline," WABC-TV, October 27, 1983.
38. An analysis of videotapes I made of the TV coverage revealed that whenever the students were pressed by the reporter as to whether they were in fact in danger before the invasion or because of it, they admitted h was only American firepower they were speaking about. Virtually no one watching the students, however, could internalize this fact, and all commentators went on describing "the danger the students were in" which the invasion "saved them from."
39. Washington Post, October 28, 1983, p.1; New York Times, October 27, 1983, p.1.

References for pages 155-161 189

40. New York Times, October 28, 1983, p. 5; Washington Post, November 13, 1983, p. B5.
41. New York Times, October 28, 1983, p.17.
42. New York Times, November 6, 1983, p.20.
43. Daily News, November11, 1983, p.6.
44. The Economist, March 10,1984, p.32.
45. The Observer, October 30, 1983, p.9.
46. The official Pentagon body count of 18 Americans, 47 Cubans and 21 Grenadans undercounted the number of Grenadans killed; see footnote 74 to this chapter.
47. It is possible that Reagan, like his friend Rev. Jerry Fallwell, who is also a religious fundamentalist, felt the Marines were "raptured in a twinkling of an eye" into heaven; see Ronnie Dugger, "Does Reagan Expect an Armageddon?" p. C4.
48. New York Times, October 26, 1983, p. M2; Washington Post, November 3, 1983, p. A3.
49. The Observer, October 30, 1983, p.11.
50. George Will, Newsweek, November 7, 1983, p.142.
51. Patrick Buchanan, New York Post, October 27, 1983, p.27.
52. Washington Post, October 30,1983, p. A18.
53. "Night Line," WABC-TV, October 27, 1983.
54. "Nightly News," WNBC-TV, December 13, 1983; Daily News, December 18, 1983, p.6.
55. John Hess, Metromedia News, November 10, 1983.
56. Washington Post, November 24, 1983, p.1.
57. New York Times, November 7, 1983, p.1.
58. Dallas Times Herald, October 30, 1983, p.17.
59. Gallup news release, March 4, 1984, p.1.
60. The story was in his December 12, 1984 speech, and was later found not to have occurred.
61. New York Times, December 11, 1983, p.1.
62. Chicago Tribune, November 20,1983, p.1.
63. New York Post, November 9, 1983, p.36.
64. Cited in The Nation, April 7, 1984, p.404.
65. New York Times, March 20, 1984, p.3.
66. For a psychohistorical analysis of the phenomenon, see David Beisel, "Thoughts on the Cabbage Patch Kids," Journal of Psychohistory 11(1984): in press.
67. Cannibalistic wishes regularly precede wars; for an analysis of the intrapsychic dynamics of cannibalistic fantasies toward children, see Joyce McDougall, "A Child is Being Eaten," Contemporary Psychoanalysis 16 (1980): 417459.

References for pages 161-163 18

68. Attacks by terrorists in America in 1983 had dropped to 31 from 51 in 1982; see U.S. News, January 9, 1984, p.26.
69. Newsweek, December 26, 1983, p.14.
70. New York Times, December 14, 1983, p. A14.
71. New York Post, April 16, 1984, p.29.
72. New York Post, November 4,1983, p.43.
73. For Reagan's quote and an analysis of his offensive plans, see Tad Szulc, "The Tough New Line on Central America," Los Angeles Times1 September 18, 1983, Part IV, p.1.
74. Dady News, April 17, 1984, p.22.
75. "Nightly News," WNBC-TV, February 4, 1984.