As a new generation of helping mode children become adults, those individuals who have been brought up without abuse and allowed to innovate solutions to their own new goals will be able to construct a peaceful world, first by improving the childrearing of the majority of families and secondly by building a new peace counseling profession that can eliminate wars and terrorism.
IMPROVING GLOBAL CHILDREARING
The crucial task of future generations will be to raise loved children who grow up to be peaceful, rather than walking time bombs. In addition, the ability to solve future global economic problems will depend upon improving childrearing around the world. Unfortunately, economists don’t even consider child care as necessary work when measuring Gross Domestic Product, although family care giving, mostly by women, is in fact 70% of GDP.2 Harriet Fraad has shown that American marriages have actually become more “in trouble” in the past decade; “married women are anxious and depressed and American men feel emasculated, neglected and miserable” as the majority of wives have had to work and neglect child care.3
But the most progressive nations have improved their family systems recently. Success in advancing childrearing has been dramatically demonstrated in the 36 nations—in Europe, Africa and Asia, but not the U.S.—which have passed laws against the hitting of children, even against parental spanking.4 Parents are not punished for hitting their children; they are instead visited by child-care experts who help them improve their childrearing skills.5 Plus, in some European countries, mothers are given paid leave of three years for each child, and are provided with free health insurance and free pre-school programs, so their children can be loved and provided for with less anxiety. In addition, older children care for younger ones in school so they are able to improve their care giving abilities.6 When these children have become adults, they have been able to relate peacefully with each other in the European Union, which has solved even severe economic problems without the wars between nations which in previous centuries exploded every 20 years.7
As Robin Grille documents in his “Children’s Wellbeing Manifesto”8 that details 15 successful efforts by nations to promote healthy emotional development in children, “parenting is best done in company,” so establishing Community Parenting Centers and early home visits for families has been shown to reduce both the amount of child abuse and the crime rates in the cities that provide the centers.9 The centers of course teach close, loving parenting, even to boys, who are not expected to hid their feelings and be “real boys,” “tough,” playing war by the time they are four years old. Additional programs that have been successful include teaching non-abusive parenting in school,10 Jordan Riak’s “Project No-Spank”,11 and other websites which provide valuable information about non-abusive parenting, school courses In how to avoid being sexually abused,12 after-school programs for teens,13 special school programs for antisocial children,14 parenting classes for single mothers (who now make up half of all mothers in the U.S.),15 the very successful program teaching children empathy by helping them relate to a baby brought into the classroom,16 school Violence Prevention Programs,17 Since maternal alcoholism is directly related to their harsh parenting of little children, treatment of their drinking problem can reduce their need to abuse.18 “Parental Friendship Circles” that share good child-rearing techniques, and Children’s Healing Programs that undo the damages done to children during wars 19 “Peace Education Projects” have been established teaching school children how to avoid wars.20 Even developing nations such as Palestine have had successes in child abuse prevention classes.21 The child abuse prevention programs save so much money by reducing crime and saving some of the huge costs of wars that they have been shown to cost the government nothing.22 The U.S. especially needs to expand all these parenting improvement programs, since it has 67 percent of mothers of young children now working, so it was recently ranked last out of 21 developed nations in quality of child care,23 with five times the rest of the world’s prison incarceration rate,24 the world’s largest military, over half of the world’s total military expenditures, and the millions of people killed in wars during the past century.25
U.S. WAGES MIDDLE EAST WAR FOR 20 YEARS
After the Cold War ended, improvements in childrearing in most nations increased the number of democracies by 90 nations, reduced the number of the world’s poor by half, and allowed wars between nations to decline to the lowest number in history.26 In contrast, the world’s longest major war has been conducted by the U.S. in the Middle East, after having been started 20 years ago by President George H. W. Bush, continued by President Bill Clinton’s lethal bombing and sanctions, and vastly expanded by President George W. Bush after 9/11 into a “Global War on Terror” that has neither a goal nor an end. Even when it was pointed out to Secretary of State Madeleine Albright that a half million children were needlessly killed by the sanctions, her answer was simply: “The price was worth it.”27 Although few use the term, the 20-year war should be called the U.S. Middle East War, as it has been the longest, the most lethal (over 3 million humans killed), the most expensive (over $3 trillion) and the most unnecessary war the U.S. has ever waged. Because the U.S. Middle East War has continued to sustain the group-fantasy of America gaining the world’s “respect” by a “permanent war against terrorism,” even President Obama believes it must continue to be fought, carrying out the vow of George W. Bush that “the U.S. shall stay on the offensive…to rid the world of evil.”28
Most countries attacked in the U.S. Middle East War—Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Yemen and Palestine—are “democratizing nations” that have a significant portion of their families modernizing, so they have experienced both new political freedoms and the “growth panic” and “freedom anxiety” that have led to increased need for violence.29 Iran in particular has moved from democratizing to dictatorship, which controls most of the terrorists in the Middle East and believes that they should set off an apocalyptic nuclear annihilation.30 Most of these nations have exploding crime rates, corrupt police, and tyrannical leaders.31 All have experienced a need for an “enemy” upon whom they can project their dissociated emotional fears. It is no coincidence that Afghanistan, according to Phyllis Bennis, is “the worst nation in the world for children.”32 This is the provocative role the U.S. feels it must play.33 In 2006, for instance, George W. Bush admitted that a preemptive nuclear strike by the U.S. on Iran was an “option on the table.”34 Bombing Middle East families and smashing down their doors, killing those inside indiscriminately and slaughtering millions of civilians, are certain ways for the U.S. to invite revenge and become an permanent “enemy” of Middle Eastern terrorists. “They throw innocent and guilty alike into overcrowded detention camps that then serve as incubators of anti-American resistance.”35 Creating enemies is the stated goal of the U.S. Middle East War; as Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice put it, U.S. forces are for killing people, not protecting them: “We don’t need to have the 82nd Airborne escorting kids to kindergarten.”36 This attitude is the basis for the U.S. now spending over $700 billion a year on war and only $3 billion on peacekeeping.37
PEACE COUNSELING: A NEW PROFESSION
Since the profession of international negotiations are mainly based upon “realist” theories that wars are caused by utilitarian motives, I have applied my psychohistorical theory that wars are suicidal, motivated by pathological self-destructive emotional memories, and proposed that a new profession, “peace counseling,” should be created and used to bring about peaceful relations between violent groups by using psychoanalytic and psychohistorical techniques to achieve conflict resolution.38 Psychoanalytically-trained psychologists such as Herbert Kelman and Vamik Volkan have made a start by running “track two diplomacy” groups that have held meetings with private professionals from two threatening nations in unofficial workshops, where participants share the injuries inflicted upon them by the other group and work toward empathy for the suffering and fears the groups have caused each other.39 The workshops are what Sandra Bloom terms “a sanctuary for recalling traumas,”40 and are completely private and confidential. There is no audience, no publicity, and no record. They are designed to produce changes in the workshop participants in the form of more differentiated images of the enemy, a better understanding of the other’s perspective, greater insight into the dynamics of the conflict, and new ideas for resolving the conflict.41 They are not negotiating sessions, but achieve their effectiveness by having those who attended them pass on their new perspectives to foreign policy officials, who then can attend future workshops. Such workshops have been successful in changing attitudes between Israel and Palestine, and between groups in Rwanda, Northern Ireland, Kosovo, Cypress, Indonesia and other areas.42 In Carne Ross’s book Independent Diplomat he explains how his diplomatic advisory group has been hired by those who want to avoid the gross distortions that are inherent in most diplomatic tasks.43 There are even books containing articles written by dozens of peace psychologists who have been successful in establishing workshops that have changed violent behavior to peaceful.44 Roger Fisher in his book Getting to Yes describes several “reframing” techniques he found successful in interpreting demonizing and reducing initial angers.45 David Perlmutter shows how he reduces cortisol violence in groups by meditation techniques.46 And Ervin Staub’s splendid book Overcoming Evil: Genocide, Violent Conflict, and Terrorism details how he has been effective in conducting peace efforts in wars in Rwanda, Darfur, Palestine and Israel.47
The track-two workshops must be expanded by applying the psychohistorical principles of this book to take into consideration our theories of wars being caused by memories of child abuse that have been embedded in group amygdalan fear centers. Unlike Volkan, who states, “I do not propose that psychoanalysts replace trained diplomats in the arena of international negotiation,”48 I believe trained psychoanalysts and psychohistorians—particularly those who have done marital therapy49 and those who have treated delinquent gangs,50 who have handled the inner fears of people who are often ready to kill each other—should indeed be peace counselors. These counselors could identify the demonic dissociated voices in each group, their “Terrifier” voices,51 examine the fears, hatreds and scapegoating those voices engender, undo their war trances, allow group members to express their feelings of being disrespected, locate the self-destructive wishes they embody, and finally express remorse for the harm they have done. The counselors could say they are the guilty ones if war starts, since their job is to produce peace, allowing both sides to identify with a guilt admission.52 The two sides can begin by fighting with the counselor rather than each other.
Peace counselors do not, of course, aim at providing full psychoanalytic insight, but hope for reaching the dissociated “time bombs” embedded by early traumas. They can see that they feel they deserved being hurt as children, and are now inflicting the hurts on others.53 They face for the first time their fears of freedom and how these drive them to find dictators. Experience in working with patients with multiple personalities would help peace counselors talk to dissociated personalities by asking if they can “talk to the angry part of you separately.”54 Nigel Hunt describes techniques of constructing new historical narratives that help overcome war traumas.55 Psychotherapists who have practiced group psychotherapy could apply their techniques of overcoming group projections to peace counseling.56 Female peace counselors might be particularly effective in allowing both sides to re-experience in a safe environment their early painful maternal accusations they suffered, when they were told that they were “bad.” Recently, even the American Psychological Association, which traditionally backed all U.S. wars, has begun a Peace Psychology Division that has promoted peacemaking activities.57
Peace counselors must give up all the usual techniques of diplomats, like threatening sanctions, embargos and other punishments that have been shown to be provocative of war rather than helping to achieve peace.58 In fact, studies have shown that nations that offer unilateral tension reduction actions in place of threats usually achieve peace, while military alliances fail.59 The United Nations Human Development Programs replace conventional armies with policing groups that establish local projects that reduce violence; for instance, one violent chiefdom collected all weapons and instead built a soccer stadium, and stayed violence-free!60
Peace counselors must be prepared to be receptacles for projections from both sides, so people can understand why they need to empower dictators to plunder and enslave and slaughter them. They might try such powerful techniques as discussing the pains of children from opposing groups being harmed and killed, both by their own families and by enemies, in order to re-experience and mourn the most fearful pains that underlie war. They might even bring in small children from each side, to appeal to the participants’ empathic feelings. They might play music before sessions, since this has been shown to notably reduce cortisol (fear) levels. They might try what President Carter did when he thought he “lacked the trust” of Menachem Begin at his Camp David peace meetings, when he gave signed photographs to Begin addressed to his grandchildren and thereby changed Begin’s mind about signing the peace accord.61 They might even try establishing Truth and Reconciliation Commissions like those instituted in South Africa after the end of apartheid that had the perpetrators of violence admit to their crimes in front of their victims and ask for forgiveness, thereby activating empathy and trust on both sides, and ending the civil war there.62 There are over a dozen similar successful Reconciliation Commissions around the world where victims forgive perpetrators who express regret, as described in the recent handbook Reconciliation After Violent Conflict.63
TALKING TO TERRORISTS WHO CAN EXPLODE NUCLEAR BOMBS
In the coming decade, not only many more nations but also scores of terrorist groups will be able to steal or buy the uranium or plutonium needed for nuclear bombs.64 As the Center for Defense Information president put it: “I wouldn’t be at all surprised if nuclear weapons are used over the next 15 or 20 year by a terrorist group that gets its hands on a Russian or Pakistani nuclear weapon.”65 The U.S. State Department now estimates that in addition to the 30,000 nuclear weapons held by the U.S., Russia and 7 other nations, there are an additional 44 nations that have the capacity to build nuclear weapons, and most will do so in the near future.66 Even under the new Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, the U.S. and Russian nuclear arsenals are still “poised for launch on warning.”67 Almost none of the existing stockpiles of plutonium and uranium—enough to produce over 250,000 nuclear bombs—have yet been rendered unusable,68 since the U.S. has cut back their program to assist Russia in safeguarding and dismantling its nuclear stockpiles, leaving 44,000 potential nuclear weapons worth of plutonium vulnerable to theft.69 There are currently 40 countries that have stockpiles of highly enriched uranium,70 and if any of this material is made available to terrorists, making nuclear devices would be relatively easily done, from clear instructions now available on the Internet. It will also be easy to ship the nuclear bombs into the U.S. in some of the millions of unexamined containers that enter seaports daily, arming terrorists like those who have promised to explode nukes that would “kill four million Americans, two million of them children” (al-Qaeda),71 so that, as India put it when they acquired their nukes, “We are not eunuchs any more. We now have superior potency.”72 Americans have avoided thinking about how to avoid “nuclear winter” annihilation by terrorist nuclear bombs, going into a dissociated trance state, in the words of George Kennan, “like the victims of some sort of hypnotism, like men in a dream,”73 even after the CIA reported recently that al-Qaeda had a ten-kiloton nuclear bomb stolen from Russia in NYC74 and some nuclear experts report “a nuclear terrorist attack on America in the decade ahead is more likely than not.”75 A group of Pakistani terrorists were captured in 2003 in Canada as they practiced a credible mission In which they would fly a plane into a nuclear reactor near Boston, which would have killed hundreds of thousands.76 Terrorists regularly refer to the need to create “an American Hiroshima.”77 As Tad Daley documents in his book Apocalypse Never, if the world does not soon forge a path to a nuclear weapon-free world there is a good chance a global nuclear holocaust will wipe out all life on earth some time in the next century.78 And Nancy Kobrin’s psychoanalytic consulting company conducts seminars for counterterrorists that use the kinds of psychohistorical insights described in this book.79
The first task of peace counselors would not just be talking to the Islamist terrorists, but talking to and changing the emotional states of U.S. foreign policy officials who are behind the current American practices of killing, torturing, beating, humiliating and shaming “enemies” around the world, the aim of which has been described by one U.S. soldier as:
You run in their homes. You go up the stairs and grab the man of the house and rip him out of bed in front of his wife…You destroy his home, leaving it looking like a hurricane hit it. We scare the living Jesus out of them every time we go through every house.80
One of the first jobs for peace counselors therefore is to talk to U.S. State Department and Pentagon personnel and discuss why America is currently continuing to expand its global military activities and arms sales and drone assaults on Middle East extremist groups by Barack Obama,81 who got elected on an anti-war agenda.82 The task of removing all U.S. provocative military activities will of course be a daunting one. Perhaps politicians and diplomats might change their policies if they were required to take courses given at the U.S. Peace Institute taught by peace counselors, which included the principles of uncovering and changing the dissociated child abuse sources of violence described in this book and other writings of psychoanalysts and psychohistorians, so they could stop the military activities that provoke groups around the world to act violently against the U.S. Actually there are currently many organizations that have courses that draw upon both psychology and the social sciences, as in the “Us & Them: Moderating Group Conflict” program and the programs described in Mark Perry’s excellent book Talking to Terrorists: Why America Must Engage With Its Enemies, which describes the valuable “outreach” meetings between U.S. military advisors and Iraqi insurgents—which George W. Bush opposed as “appeasement.”83 Obviously the changes in U.S. emotional attitudes toward terrorists must include changes in the media in order to prevent the election of another President like Bush, who began the bombing of Afghanistan with the blunt statement: “When I said no negotiations, I meant no negotiations.”84
Peace counseling sessions have been tried around the world, especially in the Middle East. Programs run by psychiatrists to rehabilitate thousands of terrorists in Saudi Arabia have been rehabilitating al-Qaeda terrorists captured by authorities, treating them with respect, examining the emotional sources of their violence and finding them jobs.85 Hundreds of workshops between Jews and Arabs have been held in Israel, targeted at students and adults, and designed to reduce distrust and hostilities between the two sides by reducing their war trances and irrational fears and achieving respect.86
All the techniques of peace counselors for nations at war described earlier in this chapter can be used in talking to terrorists. There is even a recent book by psychohistorian Joan Lachkar entitled How to Talk to a Borderline, plus three articles in The Journal of Psychohistory that show that terrorists are “borderline narcissists” who can be reached by specific therapy techniques designed to reach their “V-spots” (vulnerable spots).87 But perhaps the most thorough description of how peace counseling sessions with terrorists could be made to work can be found in Anne Speckhard and Khapta Akhmedova’s article “Talking to Terrorists” in The Journal of Psychohistory. They have for years been psychotherapists to suicide bombers in Palestine, Israel and Chechnya, and have found these individuals had from both their childrearing and their adult experiences suffered
an overwhelming sense of personal trauma—they had personally witnessed death, torture, beating, or incarceration of loved ones or had these experiences themselves [and] entered a trance state in response to triggers of posttraumatic recall of traumatic events occurring over a long duration or during childhood…As they speak about childhood it is clear that it was traumatic for them and they become alternatively dissociatively dazed and emotionally aroused.88
That Islamic terrorists want to kill their own “Bad Selves” is shown by the fact that they kill more Islamists than other groups. Al-Qaeda “declared war on the entire Islamic population of Algeria, and a hundred thousand Algerians were savagely murdered.”89
Another psychohistorian, Margret Rueffler, has been extremely successful in applying her psychological training to help groups end their violent animosities through her full-time efforts as Director of the PsychoPolitical Peace Institute. Her Journal of Psychohistory article “Healing a Collective: A PsychoPolitical Action Project”90 describes therapeutic activities of her project in a Republic of Georgian area that reduced inter-village violence by encouraging all sides to cooperate in such activities as the running of a new hospital and the feeding and clothing of village children. The experience of working together in open forums and sharing their emotions about each other was extraordinarily healing, and led to increases in food production, in small business activities, in common educational facilities, etc. U.N. “safe haven” efforts that create civilian shared protection facilities are other examples of “working together” projects like Rueffler’s.91
Although actual applications of psychohistorical theories to the task of reducing child abuse and wars around the world are few, the principles are clear of how to improve childrearing enough to reduce the internal “time bombs” that are the acting out of early nightmares, “living ghosts.” The shared pathological delusions that are re-enacted in wars and terrorism can be eliminated, in the same manner that psychiatrist James Gilligan eliminated the criminal violence of the inmates of the prison of which he was put in charge, reducing its recidivism rate to zero by educating the inmates and treating them with respect.92 Changing the violent emotions of humans around the world will obviously be difficult and will take decades. But history needn’t repeat itself—only early traumas demand repetition. Since U.S. military power around the world is so often provocative, ultimately its hundreds of foreign bases can be abolished, nuclear weapons eliminated, and its endless wars avoided. Because nuclear annihilation in the future will only be the result of continuing the acting-out of childhood nightmares, our task is a crucial one. Self-mastery must replace the mastery of others.93 Global suicide must not continue to be our goal. The lessons of this book on how to avoid the ending of our world are achievable.
1 Riane Eisler, The Real Wealth of Nations: Creating A Caring Economics. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2007, p. 62.
2 Ibid., p. 84.
3 Harriet Fraad, “Economy and Psychology: A Marriage in Trouble.” The Journal of Psychohistory 38(2011): 202.
4 Lloyd deMause, The Emotional Life of Nations. New York: Other Press, 2002, p. 339; Lloyd deMause, “What the British Can Do To End Child Abuse.” The Journal of Psychohistory 34(2006): 9.
5 Joan F. Durrant, “A Generation Without Smacking: The Impact of Sweden’s Ban on Physical Punishment.” London: Save the Children, 2000.
6 Riane Eisler, The Real Wealth of Nations, p. 45.
7 Christian Lackner, “Europe: Hierarchical Super State or Participative Network.” The Journal of Psychohistory, 39(2011); Mark Leonard, Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century. New York: PublicAffairs, 2005.
8 Robin Grille, “The Rod, the Paddle, and Abu Ghraib.” The Journal of Psychohistory 37(2010): 263-274.
9 Robert McFarland, “Creating a Community Parenting Center.” The Journal of Psychohistory 32(2005): 322-326; John Fanton, “Promoting Parenting in Your Community,” The Journal of Psychohistory 32(2005): 326-335.
10 Myriam Miedzian, Boys Will Be Boys: Breaking the Link Between Masculinity and Violence. Brooklyn: Lantern Books, 2002, pp. 116-120; Margaret R. Kind, “Parenting Education in a Public High School System.” The Journal of Psychohistory 32(2005): 357-362.
12 Maureen C. Kenny and Sandy K. Wurtele, “Children’s Abilities to Recognize a ‘Good’ Person as a Perpetrator of Childhood Sexual Abuse.” Child Abuse & Neglect 34(2010): 490-506.
13 Maia Szalavitz and Bruce D. Perry, Born For Love. New York: William Morrow, 2010, pp. 330-331.
14 Ervin Staub, The Psychology of Good and Evil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, p. 279.
15 New York Times, June 21, 2008, p. A27.
16 Mary Gordon, Roots of Empathy: Changing the World Child By Child. New York: The Experiment, 2009.
17 D. J. Flannery et al.,”Initial Behavior Outcomes for PeaceBuilders Universal School-Based Violence Prevention Program.” Developmental Psychology 39(2003): 292-299; Susan Engel, “There’s Only One Way to Stop a Bully,” New York Times, July 23, 2010, p. A23.
18 Hyoun K.Kim et al, “Trajectories of maternal harsh parenting in the first 3 years of life.” Child Abuse & Neglect 34(2010): 897-906.
19 Robert W. Firestone and Joyce Catlett, The Ethics of Interpersonal Relationships. London: Karnac, 2009, p. 10; David Bloomfield, et al., Eds., Reconciliation After Violent Conflict: A Handbook.. Stockholm: International IDEA, 2005, p. 85.
20 Amiram Raviv, et al Eds., How Children Understand War and Peace: A Call for International Peace Education. Sann Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999.
21 Sonia Oveisi et al., “Primary Prevention of Parent-Child Conflict an Abuse in Iranian Mothers.” Child Abuse & Neglect 34(2010): 206-213; Jerrold M. Post, The Mind of the Terrorist. New York: Palgrave, 2007, p. 255.
22 David Olds, et al., “Long-term Effects of Nurse Home Visitation on Children’s Criminal and Antisocial Behavior,” Journal of the American Medical Association, October 14, 1998; Joseph E. Stiglitz, The Three Trillion Dollar War. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2008.
23 Graham Cassano, Ed., Class Struggle on the Home Front: Work, Conflict, and Exploitation in the Household. New York: Palgrave, 2009, p. 27; Harriet Fraad, “American Children, Who Cares?” The Journal of Psychohistory 35(2008): 394.
24 Maia Szalavitz, Born for Love, p. 10.
25 Joseph E. Stiglitz, The Three Trillion Dollar War.
26 The Economist, June 28, 2003, p. 5; Gregg Easterbrook, The Progress Paradox. New York: Random House, 2004, p. 71.
27 Andrew J. Bacevich, Washington Rules: America’s Path to Permanent War. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2010, p. 143.
28 Tony Judt, “The New World Order.” The New York Review, July 14, 2005, p. 16; Charles Strozier, “The Psychology and Theocracy of George W. Bush.” The Journal of Psychohistory 33(2005): 113.
29 Jack Snyder, From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2000; Michael A. Ledeen, The Iranian Time Bomb: The Mullah Zealots’ Quest for Destruction. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2007, p. 207.
30 Michael A. Ledeen, The Iranian Time Bomb, p. 201.
31 Amitai Etzioni, From Empire to Community: A New Approach to International Relations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
32 Phyllis Bennis, In Depth, C-Span2 Book TV, 1/2/11.
33 Stephen Kinzer, “Book TV,” CSPAN, July 31, 2010.
34 Tad Daley, Apocalypse Never: Forging the Path to a Nuclear Weapon-Free World. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2010, p. 101.
35 Andres J. Bacevich, Washington Rules, p. 178.
36 Shannon D. Beebe and Mary Kaldor, The Ultimate Weapon Is No Weapon: Human Security and the New Rules of War and Peace. New York: PublicAffairs, 2010, p. 79.
37 Ibid., p. 131.
38 Lloyd deMause, “Peace Counseling: A New Profession.” The Journal of Psychohistory 33(2005): 2-16.
39 Herbert C. Kelman, “Social Psychological Contributions to Peacemaking and Peacebuilding in the Middle East.” In Guenther Baechler, Ed., Promoting Peace: The Role of Civilian Conflict Resolution. Berne: Staempfli, 2002; Vamik D. Volkan et al., The Psychodynamics of International Relationships. Vol. II: Unofficial Diplomacy. Lexington: Lexington Books, 1991.
40 Sandra L. Bloom, Creating Sanctuary: Toward the Evolution of Sane Societies. New York: Routledge, 1997.
41 Herbert C. Kelman, “Group Process in the Resolution of International Conflicts.” American Psychologist, March 1997, p. 214.
42 Chester A. Crocker, et al. Eds, Leashing the Dogs of War: Conflict Management in a Divided World. Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2007; George F. Ward Jr. and J. Michael Lekson, “Dealing With Conflict.” In I. William Zartman, Ed., Peacemaking in International Conflict: Methods & Techniques. Washington: United States Institute of Peace, 2007, p. 360; Christopher Mitchell, “Ending Confrontation Between Indonesia and Malaysia.” In Ronald J. Fisher, Ed. Paving the Way: Contributions of Interactive Conflict Resolution to Peacemaking. New York: Lexington Books, 2005, p. 19; Margret Rueffler, “Healing A Collective’: A PsychoPolitical Action Project.” The Journal of Psychohistory 33(2005): 17-40.
43 Carne Ross, Independent Diplomat: Dispatches from an Unaccountable Elite. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007.
44 Rachel M. MacNair, Ed., Working for Peace A Handbook of Practical Psychology and Other Tools. Atascadero: Impact Publishers, 2006.
45 Robert Fisher and William Ury, Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In. New York: Penguin Books, 1991.
46 David Perlmutter and Alberto Villoldo, Power Up Your Brin: The Neuroscience of Enlightenment. Carlsbad: Hay House, 2011.
47 Ervin Staub, Overcoming Evil: Genocide, Violent Conflict, and Terrorism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
48 Vamik D. Volkan, The Need to Have Enemies and Allies: From Clinical Practice to International Relationships. Northvale: Jason Aronson, 1988, p. 10.
49 Charles C. McCormack, Treating Borderline States in Marriage. Northvale: Jason Aronson, 2000.
50 Arnold P. Goldstein, Delinquent Gangs: A Psychological Perspective. Champaign: Research Press, 1991.
51 Franco Fornari, The Psychoanalysis of War. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1974, pp. xvi, 12.
52 Francoise Dvoine and Jean-Max Gaudilliere, History Beyond Trauma. New York: Other Press, 2004, p. 90.
53 James F. Masterson, The Personality Disorders Through the Lens of Attachment Theory and the Neurobiologic Development of the Self. Phoenix: Zeig, Tucker & Theisen, 2006.
54 Doris Bryant et al., The Family Inside: Working with the Multiple. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1992, p. 195.
55 Nigel C. Hunt, Memory, War and Trauma. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, pp. 114-126.
56 Irvin D. Yalom and Molyn Leszcz, Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy, Fifth Edition. New York: Basic Book, 2005.
57 Aniel J. Christie et al., Peace, Conflict, and Violence: Peace Psychology for the 21st Century. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2001.
58 Ivan Eland, The Empire Has No Clothes: U.S. Foreign Policy Exposed. Oakland: The Independent Institute, 2008, pp. 66, 67.
59 Greg Cashman, What Causes War? An Introduction to Theories of International Conflict. New York: Lexington Books, 1993, pp. 187, 281.
60 Shannon D. Beebe and Mary Kaldor, The Ultimate Weapon Is No Weapon: Human Security and the New Rules of War and Peace. New York: PublicAffairs, 2010, p. 96.
61 Vamik D. Volkan, The Need to Have Enemies and Allies, p. 237.
62 Michael Humphrey, The Politics of Atrocity and Reconciliation: From Terror to Trauma. London: Routledge, 2002; Yehudith Auerbach, “The Reconciliation Pyramid—A Narrative-Based Framework for Analyzing Identity Conflicts.” Political Psychology 30(2009): 308; Ani Kalayjian and Raymond F. Paloutzian, Forgiveness and Reconciliation: Psychological Pathways to Conflict Transformation and Peace Building. New York: Springer, 2009.
63 David Bloomfield, et al., Eds., Reconciliation After Violent Conflict: A Handbook.
64 Graham Allison, Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe. New York: Times Books, 2004.
65 Nicholas D. Kristof, “A Nuclear 9/11.” The New York Times, March 10, 2004, p. A27.
66 Jonathan Schell, “The Unconquerable World. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2003, p. 313.
67 Bruce Blair, et al., “Smaller and Safer: A New Plan For Nuclear Postures.” Foreign Affairs 89(2010/5): 9.
68 Noam Chomsky, Hegemony or Survival. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2003, p. 221; Ivo Daalder and Jan Lodal, “The Logic of Zero: Toward a World Without Nuclear Weapons.” Foreign Affairs 87(2008): 82.
69 Noam Chomsky, Hegemony or Survival, p. 219; Graham Allison, Nuclear Terrorism, p. 147.
70 Graham Allison, Nuclear Terrorism, p. 67.
71 Ibid., p. 12.
72 Jonathan Schell, The Seventh Decade: The New Shape of Nuclear Danger. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2007.
73 Jonathan Schell, The Fate of the Earth and The Abolition. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000, p. 148.
74 Graham Allison, Nuclear Terrorism, p. 1.
75 Ibid., p. 15.
76 Curt Weldon, Countdown to Terror. Washington: Regnery Publishing, 2005, p. 9.
77 Brian Michael Jenkins, Will Terrorists Go Nuclear? Amherst: Prometheus Books, 2008, p. 30.
78 Tad Daley, Apocalypse Never: Forging the Path to a Nuclear Weapon-Free World. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2010, p. 235.
79 Nancy Hartevelt Kobrin, The Banality of Suicide Terrorism. Washington: Potomac Books, 2010.
80 Chris Hedges and Laia Al-Arian, “The Other War.” The Nation, July 30, 2007, p. 14.
81 “A Secret Assault on Terror Widens on Two Continents,” The New York Times, 8/15/10, pp. 1, 10, 11.
82 Tom Engelhardt, The American Way of War: How Bush’s Wars Became Obama’s. Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2010.
83 Stephen D. Fabick, “Us & Them: Reducing the Risk of Terrorism.” In Chris E. Stout, Ed., Psychology of Terrorism, Condensed Edition: Coping with the Continuing Threat. Westport: Praeger, 2004, pp. 105-114. Mark Perry, Talking to Terrorists: Why America Must Engage With Its Enemies. New York: Basic Books, 2010, p. 117.
84 Howard Zinn, A Power Governments Cannot Suppress. San Francisco: City Light Books, 2007, p. 93.
85 NBC, “Evening News,” July 17, 2007.
86 Ifat Maoz, “Dialogue and Social Justice in 47 Workshops of Jews and Arabs in Israel.” In Mari Fitzduff and Chris E. Stout, Eds., The Psychology of Resolving Global Conflicts: From War to Peace. Vol. 2: Group and Social Factors. Westport: Praeger Security International, 2006, pp. 139-146.
87 Joan Lachkar, How to Talk to a Borderline. New York: Routledge, 2010; Joan Lachkar, “The Psychological Make-up of a Suicide Bomber.” The Journal of Psychohistory 29(2002): 349-367; Joan Lachkar, “Terrorism and the Borderline Personality.” The Journal of Psychohistory 33(2006): 311-324; Joan Lachkar, “The Psychopathology of Terrorism: A Cultural V-Spot.” The Journal of Psychohistory 34(2006): 111-128.
88 Anne Speckhard and Khapta Akhmedova, “Talking to Terrorists.” The Journal of Psychohistory 33(2005): 129, 136.
89 Geoffrey Wawro, Quicksand: America’s Pursuit of Power in the Middle East. New York: Penguin Press,2010, p. 462
90 Margret Rueffler, “Healing a Collective: A PsychoPolitical Action Project.” The Journal of Psychohistory 33(2005):17-40.
91 Shannon D. Beebe and Mary Kaldor, The Ultimate Weapon Is No Weapon, p. 91.
92 James Gilligan, Preventing Violence (Prospects for Tomorrow). London: Thames & Hudson, 2001,
93 Andrew J. Bacevich, Washington Rules: America’s Path to Permanent War, pp. 229-237