Citations: The Evolution of Childrearing

1. Aeschylus, Libation Bearers, 753; Augustine, Confessions, I, 7.11; Michael Goodich, "Encyclopaedic Literature: Child-Rearing in the Middle Ages." History of Education 12(1983):7; Jean Delumeau, Sin and Fear. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990, p. 266; Lawrence Stone, The Family, Sex and Marriage In England 1500-1800. New York: Harper & Row, 1977, p. 408; David Cressy, Birth, Marriage, and Death: Ritual, Religion and the Life-Cycle in Tudor and Stuart England. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 19; Arthur P. Wolf, "The Women of Hai-shan: A Demographic Portrait. In Margery Wolf and Roxane Witke, Eds., Women in Chinese Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1975, p. 202; George Savile Halifax, The Lady's New-Years Gift: or, Advice to a Daughter. London, 1688, p. 80; Catherine M. Scholten, Childbearing in American, p. 60; Philip Greven, The Protestant Temperament. New York: New American Library, 1977, p. 28.

2. Linda Pollock, Forgotten Children: Parent-Child Relations from 1500 to 1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983, p. 51; Andrew Bard Schmookler, Out of Weakness: Healing the Wounds That Drive Us to War. New York: Bantam Books, 1988, p. 106.

3. See Lloyd deMause, "On Writing Childhood History." The Journal of Psychohistory 16(1988): 135-171.

4. Cynthia Eller, The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why an Invented Past Will Not Give Women a Future." New York: Beacon Press, 2000.

5. Peter J. Wilson, Man, The Promising Primate: The Conditions of Human Evolution. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980, p. 63.

6. Adrienne L. Zihlman, "Sex Differences and Gender Hierarchies Among Primates: An Evolutionary Perspective." In Barbara Diane Miller, Ed., Sex and Gender Hierarchies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 36.

7. James Shreeve, The Neandertal Enigma: Solving the Mystery of Modern Human Origins. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1995, p. 163.

8. Peggy Reeves Sanday, Female Power and Male Dominance: On the Origins of Sexual Inequality. Cambridge: Cambridge Universtiy Press, 1981, pp. 21-27.

9. Francoise Zonabend, "An Anthropological Perspective on Kinship and the Family." In André Burguière, et al, Eds., A History of the Family: Vol. One. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996, p. 41.

10. Judy Grahn, Blood, Bread, and Roses: How Menstruation Created the World. Boston: Beacon Press, 1993, p. 3.

11. Linda D. Wolfe, "Human Evolution and the Sexual Behavior of Female Primates." In J. D. Loy and C. B. Peters, Eds. Understanding Behaviour: What Primate Studies Tell Us About Human Behaviour. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991, p. 142.

12. Scott Coltrane, "Father-Child Relationships and the Status of Women: A Cross-Cultural Study." American Journal of Sociology 93(1988): 1073.

13. L. L. Langness, "Child Abuse and Cultural Values: The Case of New Guinea." In Jill. E. Korbin, Child Abuse and Neglect: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981, p. 24.

14. James Woodburn, "Hunters and Gatherers Today and Reconstruction of the Past." In Ernest Gellner, Ed. Soviet and Western Anthropology London: Duckworth, 1980, p.107.

15. Deborah Willis, Malevolent Nurture: Witch-Hunting and Matyernal power in Early Modern England. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995, p. 35; Katherine Usher Henderson and Barbara F. McManus, Half Humankind: Contexts and Texts of the Controversy About Women in England, 1540-1640. Urbana: University of Illinois press, 1985.

16. Barry S. Strauss, Fathers and Sons in Athens: Ideology and Society in the Era of the Peloponnesian War. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993; Mark Golden, Children and Childhood in Classical Athens. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990; Beryl Rawson, Ed., Marriage, Divorce, and Children in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991

17. Aristophenes, Wasps 609.

18. Madelyn Gutwirth, The Twilight of the Goddesses: Women and Representation in the French Revolutionary Era. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1992, p. 125.

19. Sarah B. Pomeroy, Families in Classical and Hellenistic Greece, p. 29.

20. Mark Golden, Children and Childhood in Classical Athens, p. 122.

21. Sarah B. Pomeroy, Families in Classical and Hellenistic Greece, p. 30.

22. Annik Pardailhé, The Birth of Intimacy: Privacy and Domestic Life in Early Modern Paris. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991, pp. 53-59.

23. Herodotus I.136.

24. Aristotle Gen. An. 3.759b7.

25. Lawrence A. Hoffman, Covenant of Blood: Circumcision and Gender in Rabbinic Judaism. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996, p. 138.

26. Mark Golden, Children and Childhood in Classical Athens, p. 38.

27. Ibid, p. 125.

28. Evelyn Reed, Woman's Evolution: From Matriarchal Clan to Patriarchal Family. New York: Pathfinder, 1974, p. 438.

29. Charles Stewart, Demons and the Devil: Moral Imagination in Modern Greek Culture. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991, p. 50.

30. Plutarch, Solon 20.3.

31. Eva Cantarella, Bisexuality in the Ancient World. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992, p. 70.

32. Robin Scroggs, The New Testament and Homosexuality. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1983, p. 48.

33. Xenophon, Oeconomicus IX.

34. Ibid., p. 47.

35. Robert Flaceliere, Love in Ancient Greece. London: Frederick Muller, 1962, p. 103.

36. S. C. Humphreys, The Family, Women and Death: Comparative Studies. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983, p. 17.

37. Seneca, On Benefits I.16.3.

38. Kathryn M. Ringrose, "Living in the Shadows: Eunuchs and Gender in Byzantium." In Gilbert Herdt, Ed., Third Sex, Third Gender. New York: Zone Books, 1994, p. 94.

39. Margery Wolf, "Chinese Women: Old Skills in a New Context." In Rosaldo and Lamphere, Eds., Woman, Culture, and Society. pp. 157, 169.

40. Nancy Tanner, "Matrifocality in Indonesia and Africa and Among Black Americans." In Rosaldo and Lamphere, Eds., Woman, Culture, and Society. pp. 139, 135.

41. Georges Duby, Love and Marriage in the Middle Ages. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1994, p. 96.

42. Madelyn Gutwirth, The Twilight of the Goddesses, p. 110.

43. Danielle Régnier-Bohler, "Imagining the Self."" In Georges Duby, Ed., A History of Private Life. II. Revelations of the Medieval World. Cambridge:Harvard University Press, 1988

44. Edward Shorter, A History of Women's Bodies. New York: Basic Books, 1982, p. 292.

45. Joy Wiltenburg, Disorderly Women and Female Power in the Street Literature of Early Modern England and Germany. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1992, pp. 86-92.

46. Joan Larsen Klein, Ed., Daughters, Wives, and Widows: Writings by Men About Women and Marriage in England, 1500-1640. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992.

47. Peter Abelard, History of My Misfortunes, In David Herligy, Ed., Medieval Culture and Society. New York: Harper & Ro9w, 1968, p. 199.

48. Judith Schneid Lewis, In the Family Way: Childbearing in the British Aristocracy, 1760-1860. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1986, p. 26.

49. Hippolyte Taine, The Ancient Regime. New York: Peter Smith, 1931, p. 136.

50. Bogna W. Lorence, "Parents and Children in Eighteenth-Century Europe." History of Childhood Quarterly 2(1974): 1.

51. Michael Zuckerman, "Wiliam Byrd's Family." Perspectives in American History 12(1979): 256.

52. Albertine Adrienne Necker, Progressive Education, Commencing With the Infant. Boston: W. D. Ticknor, 1835, p. 180.

53. Patrick P. Dunn, "Fathers and Sons Revisited: The Childhood of Vissarion Belinskii." History of Childhood Quarterly 1(1974): 389.

54. Stephen M. Frank, Life With Father: Parenthood and Masculinity in the Nineteenth-Century American North. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998, p. 37.

55. Ralph LaRossa, The Modernization of Fatherhood: A Social and Political History. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1997.

56. Suzanne Braun Levine, Father Courage: What Happens When Men Put Family First. New York: Harcourt, 2000.

57. John P. Robinson and Geoffrey Godbey, Time For Life: The Surprising Ways Americans Use Their Time. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997; Michael E. Lamb et al., "A Biosocial Perspective on Paternal Behavior and Involvement." In Jane B. Lancaster, et al., Eds., Parenting Across the Life Span: Biosocial Dimensions. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1987, p. 126.

58. Time, August 28, 2000, p. 54.

59. Barbara Kaye Greenleaf, Children Through the Ages: A History of Childhood. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978, p. 7.

60. Muriel Jolivet, Japan: The Childless Society? London: Routledge, 1997, p. 27.

61. Avner Gil'adi, Children of Islam: Concepts of Childhood in Medieval Muslim Society. Houndsmells: Macmillan Academic, 1992, p. 108.

62. Charlotte Gower Chapman, Molocca: A Sicilian Village. Cambridge: Schenkman Publishing Co., 1971, p. 30.

63. David DiLillo et al., "Linking Childhood Sexual Abuse and Abusive Parenting: The Mediating Role of Maternal Anger." Child Abuse & Neglect 24(2000):767-779; Kathleen M. Fox and Brenda Gilbert, "The Interpersonal and Psychological Functioning of Women Who Experienced Childhood Physical Abuse, Incest, and Parental Alcoholism." Child Abuse & Neglect 18(1994): 849-858.

64. Nancy Chodorow, Family Structure and Feminine Personality. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1974, p. 48.

65. Joseph C. Rheingold, The Mother, Anxiety: and Death: The Catastrophic Death Complex. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1967, p. 129.

66. Linda Pollock, A Lasting Relationship: Parents and Children Over Three Centuries. Hanover: University Press of New England, 1987, p. 68.

67. Elisabeth Badinter, Mother Love: Myth and Reality. Motherhood in Modern History. New York: Macmillan, 1981, p. 30.

68. Danièle Alexandre-Bidon and Didier Lett, Children in the Middle Ages: Fifth-Fifteenth Centuries. Notre Dame: The University of Notre Dame Press, 1999, p. 30.

69. Rozsika Parker, Mother Love/Mother Hate: The Power of Maternal Ambivalence. New York: Basic Books, 1995, p. 18.

70. Ibid, pp. 61, 118.

71. Gordon Rattray Taylor, The Angel Makers: A Study in the Psychological Origins of Historical Change 1750-1850. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1974, p. 318.

72. Lloyd deMause, Foundations of Psychohistory, p. 19; Alenka Puhar, "Childhood In Nineteenth-Century Slovenia." The Journal of Psychohistory 21 (1985): 309.

73. Elisabeth Badinter, Mother Love: Myth and Reality, pp. 314-315.

74. Joseph C. Rheingold, The Fear of Being a Woman: A Theory of Maternal Destructiveness. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1964, p. 227.

75. Ovid, Fasti, 329; S. Vernon McCasland, By the Finger of God; Demon Possession and Exorcism in Early Christianity in the Light of Modern Views of Mental Illness. New York: Macmillan, 1951, p. 97.

76. Alenka Puhar, "Childhood In Nineteenth-Century Slovenia," 12(1985): 294; J. K. Campbell, Honour, Family and Patronage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1964, p. 154.

77. Richard and Evan Blum, The Dangerous Hour: The Lore of Crisis and Mystery in Rural Greece. London: Chatto & Windus, 1970, p. 55.

78. Lawrence E. Stager and Samuel R. Wolff, "Child Sacrifice at Carthage: Religious Rite or Population Control?" Biblical Archeological Review, January 1984, pp. 31-46.

79. Shelby Brown, Late Carthaginian Child Sacrifice and Sacrificial Monuments in their Mediterranean Context. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1991, pp. 22-23.

80. Hyam Maccoby, The Sacred Executioner: Human Sacrifice and the Legacy of Guilt.New York: Thames and Hudson, 1982.

81. Wolfgang Lederer, The Fear of Women. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1968, p. 126; John Day, Molech: A God of Human Sacrifice in the Old Testament. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989; Lloyd deMause, "The History of Child Assault." The Journal of Psychohistory 18(1990): 3-29.

82. Lawrence E. Stager, "The Rite of Child Sacrifice at Carthage." In John G. Pedley, New Light on Ancient Carthage. Ann Arbor: Univesity of Michigan Press, 1980, pp. 6-7.

83. E. L. Simons, "Human Origins." Science 245(1989): 1344.

84. Timothy Taylor, The Prehistory of Sex. New York: Bantam Books, 1996, p. 189.

85. Sibylle von Cles-Reden, The Realm of the Great Goddess: The Story of the Megalith Builders. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1962, p. 21.

86. Evelyn Reed, Woman's Evolution from Matriarchal Clan to Patriarchal Family. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1975, p. 408.

87. Max Shein, The Precolumbia Child. Culver City: Labyrinthos, 1992, p. 97.

88. Celia Carey, "Secrets: The Incas Appeased Mountain Gods With Their Children's Lives." Discovering Archeology July/August 1999, pp. 44-53.

89. H. S. Darlington, "Ceremonial Behaviorism: Sacrifices for the Foundation of Houses." The Psychoanalytic Review 18(1931): 309-327.

90. Iris Origo, Leopari: A Study in Solitude. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1953, p. 16.

91. Epictetus, Discourses, 2, 213.

92. Bertram Wyatt-Brown, Yankee Saints and Southern Sinners. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1985, p. 14.

93. Ferdinand Mount, The Subversive Family. London: Jonathan Cape, 1982, p. 109.

94. Cotton Mather, Diary of Cotton Mather. Vol. 1. New York: Frederick Ungar, n.d., pp. 374, 7, 187.

95. Joseph Rheingold, The Fear of Being a Woman, pp. 143, 157.

96. Lloyd deMause, Foundations of Psychohistory, pp. 26-31, 109-131; William Tarn and G. T. Griffith, Helenistic Civilizations. 3rd Ed. London: Edward Arnold, 1952, p. 28; David Herlihy, Medieval and Renaissance Pistoia: The Social History of an Italian Town, 1200-1430. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967, p. 38; David Herlihy, Medieval Households. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985, p. 66.

97. Kanti B. Pakrasi, Female Infanticide in India. Calcutta, 1971, p. 88; Mildred dickemann, "Female Infanticide..." In Napoleon A. Chagnon and William Irons, Evolutionary Biology and Human Social Behavior. North Scituate: Dixbury Press, 197, p. 341.

98. The New York Times, November 5, 1991, p. C1; Karin Evans, The Lost Daughters of China. New York: Putnam, 2000, p. 118.

99. Lloyd deMause, Foundations of Psychohistory, p. 122; see chart in Chapter 5 of this book.

100. Massimo Livi Bacci, A Concise History of World Population. Malden: Blackwell, 1997, p. 32. Larry S. Milner, Heart/Hardness of Life. The Story of Human Infanticide. Lanham: University Press of America, 2000, p. 11, estimates 7 billion children infanticided.

101. George Frederic Still, The History of Paediatrics. London: Oxford University Press, 1931, p. 385.

102. Bogna W. Lorence, "Parents and Children in Eighteenth-Century Europe." History of Childhood Quarterly 2(1974): 11.

103. Lloyd deMause, Foundations, p. 32.

104. Jacques Léauté, "L'infanticide a la fin du Moyen Age..." Revue historique de droit francais et étranger 50(1972): 232.

105. Avner Gil'adi, Children of Islam: Concepts of Childhood in Medieval Muslim Society. Hampshire: Macmillan, 1992, p. 108.

106. See my summary of evidence in Lloyd deMause, "On Writing Childhood History." The Journal of Psychohistory 16(1988): 150; Richard Trexler, "Infanticide in Florence." History of Childhood Quarterly 1(1974): 353-65; Emily Coleman, "L'infanticide dans le Haut Moyen Age," Annales: economies, societes, civilisations (1974): 315-335; Henri Bresc, "Europe: Town and Country (Thirtenth-Fifteenth Century)." In André Burguière et al., A History of the Family. Vol. One. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996, p. 457.

107. S. Ryan Johansson, "Centuries of Childhood/Centuries of Parenting." Journal of Family History 12(1987):358.

108. Nigel Davies, Human Sacrifice in History and Today. New York: William Morrow, p. 192.

109. Larry S. Milner, Hardness of Heart, p. 143.

110. Lloyd deMause, "The History of Childhood in Japan." The Journal of Psychohistory 15(1987): 149.

111. Joseph Rheingold, The Fear of Being a Woman, p. 38.

112. Deborah Willis, Malevolent Nurture, p. 60.

113. Arnold Rascovsky, "On the Genesis of Acting Out and Psychopathic Behavior in Sophocles' Oedipus." International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 49(1968): 390.

114. Bartholomey Batty, The Christian Man's Closet. 1581, p. 28; Seneca, Moral Essays, 145; Regina Schulte, "Infanticide in Rural Bavaria in the Nineteenth Century." In Hans Medick and David Warren Sabean, Interest and Emotion: Essays on the Study of Family and Kinship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984, p. 91.

115. David Herlihy, Medieval Households, p. 54; Hiroshi Wagatsuma, "Child Abandonment and Infanticide: A Japanese Case." In Jill E. Korbin, Ed., Child Abuse and Neglect: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981, p. 131.

116. Maria W. Piers, Infanticide. New York: W. W. Norton, 1978, p. 41; Larry S. Milner, Hardness of Heart, p. 126; Georges Duby, The Knight, the Lady and the Priest: The Making of Modern Marriage in Medieval France. New York: Pantheon Books, 1983, p. 66.

117. Muriel Jolivet, Japan: The Childless Society?, p. 120; Regina Schulte, "Infanticide in Rural Bavaria...," pp. 87-89;

118. Soranus, Gynecology, 79.

119. Marjorie Shostak, Nisa: The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981, p. 54.

120. Lyndal Roper, Oedipus and the Devil, p. 1; Richard and Eva Blum, Health and Healing in Rural Greece: A Study of Three Communities. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1965, p, 73.

121. Joseph Rheingold, The Fear of being a Woman, p. 65; E. R. Dodds, The Greeks and the Irrational. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1964, p. 186, 61.

122. Immanuel Jakobovits, "Jewish Views on Infanticide." In Marvin Kohl, Ed., Infanticide and the Value of Life. Buffalo: Prometheus books, 1978, p. 24.

123. Valerie French, "Children in Antiquity." In Joseph Hawes, Ed., Children in Historical and Comparative Perspective, , p. 21.

124. John Thrupp, The Anglo-Saxon Home: A History of the Domestic Institutions and Cusoms of England. London: Longman, Green, 1862, p. 78.

125. R. Po-Chia Hsia, The Myth of Ritual Murder: Jews and Magic in Reformation Germany. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988, p. 153.

126. Rob Meens, "Children and Confession in the Early Middle Ages." In Diana Wood, Ed., The Church and Childhood. London: Blackwell Publishers, 1994, p. 57.

127. Lyle Koehler, A Search for Power: The 'Weaker Sex' in Seventeenth-Century New England. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1980, p. 200.

128. Daniel Beekman, The Mechanical Baby: A Popular History of the Theory and Practice of Chld Raising. Westport: Lawrence Hill, 1977, p. 47.

129. George K. Behlmer, Child Abuse and Moral Reform in England, 1870-1908. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1982, p. 131; Joseph C. Rheingold, The Fear of Being a Woman, p. 72.

130. Armando R. Favazza, Bodies Under Siege. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987, p. 106.

131. Walter Burkert, Creation of the Sacred: Tracks of Biology in Early Religions. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996, pp. 37-39.

132. Armando R. Favazza, Bodies Under Siege, p. 108.

133. Jean Briggs, "Living Dangerously: The Introductory Foundations of Value in Canadian Intuit Society." In Eleanor Leacock and Richard Lee, Eds., Politics and History in Band Societies. New York: Columbia University Press, 1982, p. 117.

134. Joseph C. Rheingold, The Fear of Being a Woman, pp. 85-88.

135. James DeMeo, Saharasia. Greensprings: Orgone Biophysical Research Lab, 1998, p. 125.

136. Nigel Davies, The Rampant God: Eros Throughout the World. New York: William Morrow, 1984, p. 46.

137. Sarah Blaffer Hrdy, The Woman That Never Evolved. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1983, p. 183.

138. Bernadette J. Brooten, Love Between Women. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996, p. 170; Marilyn French, The War Against Women. Summit Books, 1992, p. 109.

139. Linda Burstyn, "Female Circumcision Comes to America." Atlantic Monthly, October 1995, p. 30.

140. Olayinka Koso-Thomas, The Circumcision of Women: A Strategy for Eradication. London: Zed Books, 1987; Cathy Joseph, "Compassionate Accountability: An Embodied Consideration of Female Genital Mutilation." The Journal of Psychohistory 24(1996): 1-17; Lloyd deMause, "The Universality of Incest," The Journal of Psychohistory 19(1991):161; Hanny Lightfoot-Klein, Prisoners of Ritual: An Odyssey Into Female Genital Circumcision in Africa. New York: Harrington Park Press, 1989.

141. John G. Kennedy, "Circumcision and Excision in Egyptian Nubia." Man 5(1970): 180.

142. Joseph C. Rheingold, The Fear of Being a Woman, p. 227.

143. Marielouise Janssen-Jurreit, Sexism: The Male Monopoly on History and Thought. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1982, p. 247.

144. Andrew Scull and Diane Favreau, "The Clitoridectomy Craze." Social Research 53(1986): 243-260; Uta Ranke-Heinemann, Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven, New York: Doubleday, p. 1990, p. 318.

145. Vincent Crapanzano, "Rite of Return: Circumcision in Morocco." In Werner Muensterberger and L. Bryce Boyer, Eds., The Psychoanalytic Study of Society 9. New York: Psychohistory Press, 1981, p. 29.

146. Michio Kitahara. "A Cross-Cultural Test of the Freudian Theory of Circumcision." International Journal of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy 5(1976):535-546.

147. Reay Tannahill, Flesh and Blood: A History of the Cannibal Complex. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1996, p. 41.

148. David L. Gollaher, "From Ritual to Science: The Medical Transformation of Circumcision in America." Journal of Social History 28(1994): 5-35.

149. Allen Edwards, The Jewel in the Lotus: A Historical Survey of the Sexual Culture of the East. New York: The Julian Press, 1959, p. 187.

150. Charles Humana, The Keeper of the Bed: The Story of the Eunuch. London: Arlington Books, 1973; Anon., Praeputii Incisio. New York: The Panurge Press, 1931, p. 129.

151. Peter Tompkins, The Eunuch and the Virgin. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1962, p. 25.

152. Taisuke Mitamura, Chinese Eunuchs: The Structure of Intimate Politics. Rutland: Charles Tuttle, 1970, p. 36.

153. Patricia A. Quinn, Better Than The Sons of Kings: Boys and Monks in the Early Middle Ages. New York: Peter Lang, 1989, p. 55; Richard C. Trexler, Sex and Conquest. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995, p. 39; Albrecht Peiper, Chronik der Kinderheilkunde. Leipzig, 1966, p. 148.

154. Gilbert Herdt, Ed., Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History. New York: Zone Books, 1994.

155. Vern L. Bullough, Sexual Variance in Society and History. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1976, p. 306.

156. Peter Tompkins, The Eunuch and the Virgin, p. 12.

157. Armando R. Favazza, Bodies Under Siege, p. 155.

158. Eric John Dingwall, Male Infibulation. London: John Bale, 1925, pp. 54, 78.

159. Uta Ranke-Heinemann, Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven, p. 316.

160. Allen Edwards, The Jewel in the Lotus, p. 95.

161. David Carrasco, City of Sacrifice: The Aztec Empire and the Role of Violence in Civilization. Boston: Beacon Press, 1999, pp. 184-5.

162. Inga Clendinnen, Aztecs: An Interpretation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

163. T'ung-Tsu Ch'u, Law and Society in Traditional China. Paris: mouton & Co, 1965, p. 432; George Thomas Staunton, Ta Tsing Leu Lee; Being The Fundamental Laws...of the Penal Code of China. Taipei: Ch'eng-wen Publishing, 1966, p. 357.

164. Alenka Puhar, "Childhood in Nineteenth-Century Slovenia." The Journal of Psychohistory 12(1985): 295-6.

165. David Hunt, Parents and Children in History: The Psychology of Family Life in Early Modern France. New York: Basic Books, 1970, p. 114; Alenka Puhar, "Childhood in Nineteenth-Century Slovenia," p. 296; John Theobald, The Young Wife's Guide in the Management of Her Children. London: W. Griffen, 1764, p. 4.

166. Aline Rousselle, Porneia: On Desire and the Body in Antiquity. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1983, p. 54.

167. Max Shein, The PreColumbia Child. Culver City: Labyrinthos, 1992, pp. 48-53; Timothy Taylor, The Prehistory of Sex. New York: Bantam Books, 1996, p. 253; John E. Pfeiffer, The Creative Explosion: An Inquiry Into the Origins of Art and Religion. New York: Harper & Row, 1982, p. 100; E. J. Dingwall, Artificial Cranial Deformation. London: J. Bale, Sons, 1931 ; Armando R. Favazza, Bodies Under Siege, pp. 62-65; James DeMeo, Saharasia. Greensprings: Orgone Biophysical Research Lab, 1998, pp. 11-115.

168. Samual M. Swemer, Childhood in the Moslem World. New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1915, p. 104.

169. Ivy Pinchbeck and Margaret Hewitt, Children in English Society. I. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1969, p. 303.

170. Michio Kitahara, "Childhood in Japanese Culture." The Journal of Psychohistory 17(1989): 49.

171. Alenka Puhar, "Childhood in Slovenia," p. 301.

172. Robert Pemell, De Morbis Puerorum, or, A Treatise of the Diseases of Children...London: J. Legatt, 1653, p. 8.

173. Jules Renard, Poil de Carotte. Paris, 1894, p. 15.

174. Howard S. Levy, Chinese Footbinding: The History of a Curious Erotic Custom. London: Nevill Spearman, n.d.; Lloyd deMause, "The Universality of Incest," p. 151.

175. Richard Bentley, Ed., Memoirs of Henrietta Caracciolo. London: Richard Bentley, 1865, p. 15.

176. Edward Shorter, The Making of the Modern Family. New York: Basic Books, 1977, p. xvii.

177. Magdelena King-Hall, The Story of the Nursery. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1958, p. 126; William Perkins, Christian Economy...In Joan Larsen Klein, Ed., Daughters, Wives, and Widows, p. 199; Max Shein, The PreColumbian Child. Culver City: Labyrinthos, 1992, p. 56.,

178. E. Soulie and E. de Barthelemy, Eds., Journal de Jean Héroard sur l'Enfance et la Jeunesse de Louis XIII, Vol. 1. Paris:Firmin Didot frères, 1868, p. 35.

179. Hippolyte Adolphe Taine, The Ancient Regime. Gloucester: Peter Smith, 1962, p. 130; Avner Gil'adi, Children of Islam, p. 25.

180. Jane Beckman Lancaster, Primate Behavior and the Emergence of Human Culture. New York: Holt, Rinehard and Winston, 1975, p. 37.

181. William G. McLoughlin, "Evangelical Child Rearing in the Age of Jackson: Francis Wayland's Views on When and How to Subdue the Willfulness of Children." In N. Ray Hiner and Joseph M. Hawes, Eds., Growing Up in America: Children in Historical Perspective. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1985, pp. 87-89.

182. William Buchan, Domestic Medicine. Philadelphia: Thomas Dobson, 1809, p. 9.

183. Stephanie de Genlis, Memoirs of the Countess de Genlis. Vol. 1. New York: Wilder & Campbell, 1825, p. 10; John B. Beck, "The Effects of Opium on the Infant Subject." New York Journal of Medicine, January, 1844, p. 6; Thomas E. Jordan, Victorian Childhood: Themes and Variations. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1987, p. 99; James Walvin, A Child's World: A Social History of English Childhood 1800-1914. New York: Penguin Books, 1982, p. 26.

184. George Frederic Still, The History of Paediatrics. London: Oxford University Press, 1931, p. 466.

185. A. Hymanson, "A Short Review of the History of Infant Feeding." Archives of Pediatrics 51(1934): 4.

186. Ivy Pinchbeck and Margaret Hewitt, Children in English Society, Vol. 1. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969, p. 301.

187. Joseph Rheingold, The Fear of Being a Woman, p. 568.

188. Nancy Scheper-Hughes, "Culture, Scarcity and Maternal Thinking: Maternal Detachment and Infant Survival in a Brazilian Shantytown." Ethos 13(1985): 291-317.

189. David Hunt, Parents and Children in History, p. 115.

190. Elisabeth Badinter, Mother Love: Myth and Reality. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1981, p. 95.

191. John Knodel and Etienne Van de Walle, "Breast Feeding, Fertility and Infant Mortality: An Analysis of Some Early German Data." Population Studies 21(1967): 119.

192. Elisabeth Badinter, Mother Love: Myth and Reality, p. 95.

193. Valerie Fildes, Wet Nursing: A History from Antiquity to the Present. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988, p. 97.

194. Philip Gavitt, Charity and Children in Renaissance Florence: The Ospedale degli Innocenti, 1410-1536. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1990, p. 19.

195. Shari L. Thurer, The Myths of Motherhood: How Culture Reinvents the Good Mother. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1994, p. 93.

196. George D. Sussman, Selling Mothers' Milk: The Wet-Nursing Business in France, 1718-1914. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1982.

197. Ibid, pp. 24, 67.

198. Patrick P. Dunn, "Fathers and Sons Revisited: The Childhood of Vissarion Belinskii." History of Childhood Quarterly 1(1974): 133.

199. Mrs. Frank Malleson, Notes on the Early Training of Children. Third Edition. Boston: D. C. Heath, 1887, p. 22.

200. Edmond & Jules de Goncourt, The Woman of the Eighteenth Century. Freeport: Books for Libraries Press, 1928, p. 145.

201. Daniel Defoe, The Compleat English Gentleman. London, 1890 (1729), p. 72.

202. Charles Stewart, Demons and the Devil, p. 55.

203. Joan Larsen Klein, Ed., Daughters, Wives, and Widows. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992, p. 293.

204. Soranus of Ephesus, Gynecology, 90.

205. Elisabeth Badinter, Mother Love: Myth and Reality, p. 70.

206. Stephen Kern, "Freud and the Discovery of Child Sexuality." History of Childhood Quarterly 1(1973):124.

207. Tacitus, Dialogus de Oratoribus 29.

208. Soranus, Gynaecology 2.18.

209. Aulus Gellius, Noctes atticae, XII, I; Sandra R. Joshel, "Nurturing the Master's Child: Slavery and the Roman Child-Nurse." In Jean F. O'Barr et al., Eds, Ties That Bind: Essays on Mothering and Patriarchy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990, pp. 109-128.

210. Elisabeth Badinter, Mother Love: Myth and Reality, p. 93.

211. Linda A. Pollock, Forgotten Children: Parent-Child Relations from 1500 to 1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

212. Olwin H. Hufton, The Poor of Eighteenth-Century France 1750-1789. Oxford: Clarenden Press, 1974, p. 345.

213. Elisabeth Badinter, Mother Love: Myth and Reality, p. x.

214. Ibid, pp. 113, 62.

215. Janet Golden, A Social History of Wet Nursing in America: From Breast to Bottle.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, p. 126.

216. Elisabeth Badinter, Mother Love: Myth and Reality, p. 41.

217. Charles West, Lectures on the Diseases of Infancy and Childhood. 5th Ed. Philadelphia: Henry C. Lea, 1874, p. 45.

218. David Hunt, Parents and Children in History: The Psychology of Family Life in Early Modern France. New York: Basic Books, 1970, p. 101.

219. Mary Lindemann, "Love for Hire: The Regulation of the Wet-Nursing Business in Eighteenth-Century Hamburg." Journal of Family History 16(1981): 379.

220. George D. Sussman, Selling Mothers' Milk, p. 55.

221. Lawrence Stone, The Family, Sex and Marriage In England, p. 425.

222. George Sussman, Selling Mothers' Milk, p. 54.

223. Simon Schama, Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989, p. 146.

224. Linda Pollock, A Lasting Relationship, p 71.

225. Joan Sherwood, Poverty in Eighteenth-Century Spain: The Women and Children of the Inclusa. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988, p. 80.

226. Ibid, pp. 81, 132.

227. Louis Adamic, Cradle of Life: The Story of One Man's Beginnings. New York: Harper & Bros., 1936, p. 48.

228. Jean-Louis Flandrin, Families in Former Times: Kinship, Household and Sexuality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979, p. 204.

229. Elisabeth Badinter, Mother Love: Myth and Reality, p. 163.

230. Anna Ferraris Oliverio, "Infanticide in Western Cultures: A Historical Overview. In Stefano Parmigiani and Frederick S. vom Saal, Infanticide and Parental Care. Zurich: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1994, p. 113.

231. George Anne Bellamy, An apology for the life of George Anne Bellamy..." London: London Press, 1785, p. 26.

232. Edmund Leites, The Puritan Conscience and Modern Sexuality. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986, p. 45.

233. Valerie Fildes, Wet Nursing; Pei-Yi Wu, "Childhood Remembered: Parents and Children in China, 800-1700." In Anne Behnke Kinney, Ed., Chinese Views of Childhood. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1995, p. 130; Avbner Giladi, Infants, Parents and Wet Nurses: Medieval Islamic Views on Breastfeeding and Their Social Implications. Leiden: Brill, 1999, p. 3.

234. Valerie Fildes, Web Nursing, p. 24.

235. Fiona Newall, "Wet Nursing and Child Care in Aldenham, Hertfordshire, 1595-1726: Some Evidence on the Circumstances and Effects of Seventeenth-Century Child Rearing Practices." In Valerie Fildes, Ed. Women As Mothers in Pre-Industrial England. London: Routledge, 1990, p. 125; Patricia Crawford, "'The Sucking Child': Adult Attitudes to Child Care in the First year of Life in Seventeenth-Century England." Continuity and Change 1(1986): 31; Rudolf Dekker, Childhood, Memory and Autobiography in Holland: From the Golden Age to Romanticism. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000, p. 27; Janet Golden, A Social History of Wet Nursing in America, pp. 35, 44,56.

236. Sally McMillen, "Mothers' Sacred Duty: Breast-feeding Patterns Among Middle- and Upper-Class Women in the Antebellum South." Journal of Southern History 51(1985): 333-56; Catherine M. Scholten, Childbearing in American Society, p. 62.

237. Jacques Guillimeau, The Nursing of Children. London: A. Hatfield, 1612, p. 3.

238. Charles Carlton, Royal Childhoods. London: Routledge, 1986, p. 122.

239. R. E. Jones, "Further Evidence on the Decline in Infant Mortality in Pre-industrial England: North Shropshire, 1561-1810." Population Studies 34(1980):247.

240. Hugh Cunningham, Children and Childhood in Western Society Since 1500. London: Longman, 1995, p. 49.

241. G. G. Coulton, Social Life in Britain: From the Conquest to the Reformation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1918, p. 46.

242. Ruth Benedict, "Child Rearing in Certain European Countries." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 19(1949): 345.

243. Rhoda E. White, From Infancy to Womanhood. A Book of Instruction For Young Mothers. London: Marston, Searle & Rivington, 1882, p. 19.

244. Francois Mauriceau, The Diseases of Women with Child. London: T. Cox, 1736, p. 309.

245. Gerald Strauss, Luther's House of Learning: Introduction of the Young in the German Reformation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978, p. 97.

246. John Jones, Medical, Philosophical and Vulgar Errors of Various Kinds..." London, 1797, p. 73.

247. Felix Würtz, The Children's Book. Frankfurt, 1563, pp. 202, 205.

248. Edward Shorter, The Making of the Modern Family, p. 197.

249. David Hunt, Parents and Children in History, p. 131; Count de Buffon, A Natural History. Vol. I. London: Thomas Kelly, 1781, p. 211.

250. Lotte Danzinger and Liselotte Frankl, "Zum Problem der Funktionsreifung." Zeitschrift für Kinderforschung 43(1934): 229.

251. Edward Shorter, The Making of the Modern Family, p. 170.

252. W. Preyer, Mental Development in the Child. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1907, p. 41.

253. Alenka Puhar, "Childhood In Nineteenth-Century Slovenia," p. 308.

254. Karin Calvert, Children in the House. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1992, p. 22.

255. Christian Augustus Struve, A Familiar Treatise on the Physical Education of Children... London, 1801, p. 382.

256. Ibid, pp. 294-5.

257. Diana Dick, Yesterday's Babies: A History of Babycare. London: the Bodley Head, 1987, p. 8.

258. Alenka Puhar, "Childhood In Nineteenth-Century Slovenia," p. 295.

259. Edward Shorter, The Making of the Modern Family, pp. 170-1; David Hunt, Parents and Children in History, p. 126.

260. Jacques Guillemeau, A Treatise of theDiseases of Infants, and Young Children. London, A. Hatfield, 1612, p. 26.

261. Plato, Laws VII. 7; David Hunt, Parents and Children in History, p. 127; Lotte Danzinger, "Zum Problem der Funktionsreifung," p. 232; Anne Buck, Clothes and the Child. Carlton: Ruth Bean, 1996, p. 24; John Peckey, A General Treatise of the Diseases of Infants and Children. London: R. Wellington, 1697, p. 6; Nicholas Culpepper, A directory for midwives...London: J. Streater, 1671, p. 229

262. Elisabeth Badinter, Mother Love: Myth and Reality, pp. 96-7.

263. Stanley Walens, Feasting With Cannibals: An Essay on Kwakiutl Cosmology. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981, p. 15; John W. M. Whiting, "Adolescent Rituals and Identity Conflicts." In James W. Stigler, et al., Eds, Cultural Psychology: Essays on Comparative Human Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990, p. 358; Gwen J. Broude, Growing Up: A Cross-Cultural Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 1995, p. 172.

264. E. Lipton et al., "Swaddling, A Child Care Practice: Historical, Cultural and Experimental Observations." Paediatrics, Supplement, 35 (1965), pp. 519-67; Michio Kitahara, "Childhood in Japanese Culture," p. 44.

265. William Smellie, Of the Management of New-Born Children...London, 1762; Catherine M. Scholten, Childbearing in American Society, p. 74.

266. Hester Chapone, Chapone on the Improvement of the Mind. Philadelphia: L. Johnson, 1830, p. 203.

267. Edward Shorter, The Making of the Modern Family, p. 197; Th. Bentzon, "About French Children." Century Magazine 52(1896): 805; Elisabeth Badinter, Mother Love: Myth and Reality, p. 172; An American Matron, The Maternal Physician... New York: Isaac Riley, 1811, p. 136; Alenka Puhar, "Childhood Origins of the War in Yugoslavia." The Journal of Psychohistory 20(1993): 374.

268. Priscilla Robertson, "Home As a Nest: Middle Class Childhood in Nineteenth-Century Europe." In deMause, The History of Childhood, p. 412; Daniel Beekman, The Mechanical Baby: A Popular History of the Theory and Practice of Child Raising. Westport: Lawrence Hill & Co., 1977, p. 31; William P. Dewees, A Treatise on the Physical and Medical Treatment of Children. Philadelphia: H. C. Carey, 1826, p. 4.

269. D. M. Levy, "On the Problems of Movement Restraint." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 14(1944): 644-71; Sylvia Brody, Patterns of Mothering: Maternal Influence During Infancy. New York: International Universities Press, 1956, p. 104; Michio Kitahara, "Childrearing in Japanese Culture," p. 44; Lotte Danzinger, "Zum Problem der Funktionsreifung, pp. 249-53; Scientific American, Mind and Brain. New York: W. H. Freeman and Co., 1993, p. 16; Lloyd deMause, "The Evolution of Childhood," p. 60.

270. Arthur Janov, The Biology of Love. Amherst: Prometheus Books, 2000, pp. 35, 303.

271. Bruce D. Perry, "Neurobiological Sequelae of Childhood Trauma: PTSD in Children." In M. Michele Murburg, Catecholamine Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Emerging Concepts. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1994, pp. 223-254; Jean Carper, Your Miracle Brain. New York: HarperCollins, 2000, p. 31; Debra Hiehoff, The Biology of Violence. New York: The Free Press, 1999, p. 126; F. Lamprecht et al, "Rat Fighting Behavior." Brain Research 525(1990): 285-293.

272. Judith Sherven and James Sniechowski, "Women Are Responsible, Too." Survivors of Female Incest Emerge 3(1995):5; Ross D. Parke and Armin A. Brott, Throwaway Dads: The Myths and Barriers That Keep Men from Being the Fathers They Want to Be. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1999, p. 50; Murray Strauss and Richard Gelles, Physical Violence in American Families. New Brunswick: Transaction Press, 1990, p. 4.

273. Hannah Lynch, Autobiography of a Child. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1899, p. 3.

274. Letitia Pilkington, Memoirs of Mrs. Letitia Pilkington. 1712-1750. New York, Dodd, Mead & Co., 1928, p. 31.

275. Lisi Cipriani, A Tuscan Childhood. New York: The Century Co., 1907, p. 40.

276. Elisabeth Badinter, Mother Love: Myth and Reality, p. 240.

277. Rosalind K. Marshall, Childhood in Seventeenth Century Scotland. Edinburgh: The Trustees of the National Galleries of Scotland, 1976, p. 20.

278. Lionel Rose, The Erosion of Childhood: Child Oppression in Britain 1860-1918. London: routledge, 1991, p. 231

279. Richard Heath. Edgar Quinet: His Early Life and Writings. London: Tribner & Co., 1881, p. 3.

280. John Hersey, Advice to Christian Parents. Baltimore: Armstrong & Berry, 1839, p. 83.

281. John S. C. Abbott, The Mother At Home. Boston: Crocker and Brewster, 1834, p. 39.

282. John Chrysostom, Homily on Matthew 62.4.

283. G. R. Owst, Literature and Pulpit in Medieval England. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1961, p. 34.

284. Terry Davidson, "Wifebeating: A Recurring Phenomenon Throughout History." In Maria Roy, Ed., Battered Women: A Psychosocialogical Study of Domestic Violence. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1977, p. 19.

285. Amy L. Gilliland and Thomas R. Verny, "The Effects of Domestic Abuse on the Unborn Child." Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health 13(1999): 236.

286. Ibid, p. 243.

287. R. Parke and C. Collmer, "Child Abuse: An Interdisciplinary Analysis." In M. Hetherington, Ed., Review of Child Development. Vol. 5. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975, p. 509.

288. Robert Southey, The Life of Wesley. London: Oxford University Press, Vol. 2, p. 304.

289. Philip Greven, Spare the Child: The Religious Roots of Punishment and the Psychological Impact of Physical Abuse. New York: Vintage Books, 1990, p. 21.

290. Logan Pearsall Smith, Unforgotten Years. Boston: Little, Brown, 1939, p. 36.

291. "Extract From a Mother's Journal." Mother's Magazine, 1934, p. 43.

292. John Locke, Some Thoughts Concerning Education. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Co., 1996, p. 23.

293. Nancy Scheper-Hughes, Saints, Scholars, and Schizophrenics: Mental Illness in Rural Ireland. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983, p. 154.

294. Jeremy Seabrook, Working-Class Childhood. London: Gollancz, 1982, p. 22.

295. Gordon Rattray Taylor, The Angel Makers: A Study in the Psychological Origins of Historical Change 1750-1850. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1974, p. 305-6;

296. Anthony Fletcher, Gender, Sex and Subordination in England 1500-1800. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995, p. 208.

297. Ezekias Woodward, A Childes patrimony. London: I. Legatt, 1640, p. 30.

298. Stephanie Coontz, The Social Origins of Private Life: A History of American Families, 1600-1900. London: Verso, 1988, p. 87.

299. Ian Gibson, The English Vice: Beating, Sex and Shame in Victorian England and After. London: Duckworth, 1978, p. 55.

300. Shari L. Thurer, The Myths of Motherhood, p. 104.

301. E. Soulie and E. de Barthelemy, Eds., Journal de Jean Héroard sur l'Enfance et la Jeunesse de Louis XIII, Vol. 1, p. 436.

302. David Hunt, Parents and Children in History, p. 135.

303. Ralph Houlbrooke, Ed., English Family Life, 1576-1716: An Anthology from Diaries. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988, p. 138.

304. Albrecht Peiper, Chronik der Kinderheilkunde, p. 309.

305. Lloyd deMause, "The Evolution of Childhood," p. 49.

306. Bartholomey Batty, The Christian Man's Closet, pp. 14, 26.

307. James A. Schultz, The Knowledge of Childhood in the German Middle Ages, 1100-1350. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995, p. 94.

308. Gerald Strauss, Luther's House of Learning: Introduction of the Young in the German Reformation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978, p. 13.

309. Jame Walvin, A Child's World, p. 48.

310. Graeme Newman, The Punishment Response. Philadelphia: J. P. Lippincott, 1978, p. 63.

311. William Russell, An Autobiography of William Russell. Baltimore: Gobright, Thorne, 1852, p. 17.

312. Guildhall Library, London, document 11588/3/295.

313. Jonathan Benthall, "Invisible Wounds: Corporal Punishment in British Schools as a Form of Ritual." Child Abuse and Neglect 15(1991): 377-88; Ian Gibson, The English Vice.

314. Carl A. Mounteer, "Roman Childhood, 200 B.C. to A.D. 600." The Journal of Psychohistory 14(1987): 239.

315. Ian Gibson, The English Vice, p. 24.

316. Hannah Lynch, Autobiography of a Child. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1899, p. 142.

317. Deut. 21:21.

318. William Armstrong Percy III, Pederasty and Pedagogy in Archaic Greece. Urbana: University of Illinois press, 1996, p. 83.

319. Larry S. Milner, Hardness of Heart/Hardness of Life, p. 51.

320. Saint Ambrose. Hexameron. New York: Fathers of the Church, 1961, p. 251.

321. Richard Saller, "Corporal Punishment, Authority, and Obedience in the Roman Household." In Beryl Rawson, Ed., Marriage, Divorce, and Children in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991, p. 163.

322. Herondas, The Schoolmaster 1; Carl A. Mounteer, "Roman Childhood," p. 239.

323. Danièle Alexandre-Bidon, Children in the Middle Ages: Fifth-Fifteenth Centuries, p. 40.

324. Bartholemew Batty, The Christian Man's Closet, p. 25.

325. Geraldine Youda, Minding the Children. New York: Scribners, 1998, p. 36.

326. Albertine Adrienne Necker, Progressive Education, commencing with the infant.Boston: W. D. Ticknor, 1935, p. 336.

327. Lloyd deMause, "The Evolution of Childhood," p. 49.

328. Charles H. Sherrill, French Memories of Eighteenth-Century America. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1915, p. 72.

329. Elizabeth Pleck, Domestic Tyranny: The Making of Social Policy Against Family Violence from Colonial Times to the Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987, p. 46.

330. Jan Lewis, "Mother's Love: The Construction of an Emotion in Nineteenth-Century America." Rima D. Apple and Janet Golden, Eds., Mothers & Motherhood: Readings in American History. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1997, p. 52.

331. Melesina French, Thoughts on Education By a Parent. Southampton: Not Published. 1810.

332. David I. Macleod, The Age of the Child: Children in America, 1890-1920. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1998, p. 59.

333. LeRoy Ashby, Endangered Children: Dependency, Neglect, and Abuse in American History. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1997, p. 20.

334. Irwin A. Hyman, Reading, Writing, and the Hickory Stick: The Appalling Story of Physical and Psychological Abuse in American Schools. Lexington: Lexington Books, 1990, p. 35.

335. The New York Times, July 9, 1987, p. A1.

336. Ian Gibson, The English Vice: Beating, Sex and Shame in Victorian England and After. London: Duckworth, 1978.

337. The New York Times, December 7, 1995, p. B16; Murray A. Straus and Anita K. Mathur, "Social Change and Trends in Approval of Corporal Punishment by Parents from 1968 to 1994." In D. Frehsee et al., Eds., Violence Against Children. New York: Walter de Gruyter, p. 100; Murray A. Strauss, Beating the Devil Out of Them: Corporal Punishment in American Families. New York: Lexington Books, 1994, p. 23.

338. Susan H. Bitensky, "Spare the Rod, Embrace Our Humanity: Toward a New Legal Regime Prohibiting Corporal Punishment of Children." University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform 31(1998): 367; Joan E. Durrant, "Evaluating the Success of Sweden's Corporal Punishment Ban." Child Abuse and Neglect 23(1999): 435-447.

339. See website of EPOCH-USA at www.stophitting.com

340. Detlev Frehsee, "Einige Daten zur endlosen Geschichte des Züchtigungsrechts." Bielefeld: Deutscher Kinderschutzbund, 1997; Harry Hendrick, Children, Childhood and English Society, 1880-1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997; Ken Schooland, Shogun's Ghost: The Dark Side of Japanese Education. New York: Bergin & Garvey, 1990; Michio Kitahara, "Childhood in Japanese Culture." p. 49; Catherine So-kum Tang, "The Rate of Physical Child Abuse in Chinese Families: A Community Survey in Hong Kong." Child Abuse & Neglect 22(1998): 381-391; Igor S. Kon, The Sexual Revolution in Russia. New York: The Free Press, 1995, p. 215.

341. Arthur Machen, Trans., The Memoirs of Jacques Casanova de Seingalt. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, n.d., Vol. V, p. 512.

342. Alenka Puhar, "On Childhood Origins of Violence in Yugoslavia: II. The Zadruga." The Journal of Psychohistory 21(1993): 186.

343. Bogna Lorence, "Parents and Children in Eighteenth-Century Europe," p. 17.

344. Charles Southey, The Life and Correspondence of Robert Southey. New York: Harper, 1855, p. 24.

345. Galen, De Sanitate Tuenda. 33.

346. Scevole de St. Marthe, Paedotrophia: or, The Art of Nursing and Rearing Children. London: John Nichols, 1797, p. 63.

347. John J. Waters, "James Otis, Jr.: An Ambivalent Revolutionary." History of Childhood Quarterly 1(1973): 144.

348. Isaac Deutscher, Lenin's Childhood. London: Oxford University Press, 1970, p. 10;

349. James Bossard, The Sociology of Child Development. New York: Harper, 1948, p. 630.

350. Felix Wurtz, The Surgeons Guide: or Military and Domestique Surgery with A Guide for Women in the Nursing of their New-born Children. London, 1658, p. 346.

351. Lloyd deMause, "The Evolution of Childhood," p. 34.

352. Alice Morse Earle, Two Centuries of Costume in America. Vol. I. New York: Macmillan, 1903, p. 317.

353. Jack Lindsay, 1764: The Hurlyburly of Daily Life...London: Frederick Muller, 1959, p. 42; Alizabeth Grant Smith, Memoirs of a Highland Lady. London: John Murray, 1898, p. 49.

354. David Hunt, Parents and Children in History, p. 144.

355. Lawrence Stone, The Family, Sex and Marriage, p. 173; Sanford Fleming, Children and Puritanism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1933, p. 100.

356. Gordon Rattray Taylor, The Angel Makers, p. 313.

357. John Cuthbert Lawson, Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1910, p. 174-184; Ovid, Fasti. London: William Heinemann, 1931, p. 329; George K. Behlmer, Child Abuse and Moral Reform in England, 1870-1908. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1982, p. 5; Mrs. Hoare, Hints for the Improvement of Early Education. Salem: James Buffum, 1826, p. 69

358. Anon., Dialogues on the Passions, Habits and Affections Peculiar to Children. London: R. Griffiths, 1748, p. 31.

359. Boswell's assumption that they were picked up by other parents is wholly undocumented; see John Boswell, The Kindness of Strangers: The Abandonment of Children in Western Europe from Late Antiquity to the Renaissance. New York: Pantheon Books, 1988.

360. David I. Kertzer, Sacrificed for Honor: Italian Infant Abandonment and the Politics of Reproductive Control. Boston: Beacon Press, 1993, pp. 73.

361. Joan Sherwood, Poverty in Eighteenth-Century Spain: The Women and Children of the Inclusa. Toronto: Universtiy of Toronto Press, 1988, pp. 132, 148.

362. David I. Kertzer, Sacrificed for Honor, pp. 124-5.

363. Hugh Cunningham, Children and Childhood in Western Society Since 1500, p. 94.

364. David I. Kertzer, Sacrificed for Honor, p. 111.

365. Beatrice Gottlieb, The Family in the Wetern World from the Black Death to the Industrial Age. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993, p. 146; Volker Hunecke, Die Findelkider von Mailand. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1987; Jules Michelet, Woman. New York: Carleton, 1867, p. 67; Janet Golden, A Social History of Wet Nursing in America, p. 14; Sarah Blaffer Hrdy, Mother Nature: A History of Mothers, Infants, and Natural Selection. New York: Pantheon Books, 1999, p. 304; Louise A. Tilly et al., "Child Abandonment in European History: A Symposium." Journal of Family History 17(1992): 1-23.

366. Philip Gavitt, Charity and Children in Renaissance Florence. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1990, p. 19.

367. Victor Meladze, Beneath the Hammer. The Journal of Psychohistory 27(1999): 45, 50.

368. Roger Sawyer, Children Enslaved. London: Routledge, 1988, pp. 22, 45; LeRoy Ashby, Endangered Children: Dependency, Neglect, and Abuse in American History. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1997, p. 14; Lloyd deMause, "The Evolution of Childhood," p. 35.

369. James Bossard, The Sociology of Child Development, p. 607-8.

370. Alden T. Vaughan, America Before The Revolution 1725-1775. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1967, p. 43.

371. Elizabeth Abbott, A History of Celibacy. New York: Scribner, 2000, p. 141.

372. Danièle Alexandre-Bidon and Didier Lett, Children in the Middle Ages, p. 49.

373. Mayke de Jong, In Samuel's Image: Child Oblation in the Early Medieval West. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1996, pp. 5, 158.

374. Steven Ozment, When Fathers Ruled: Family Life in Reformation Europe. Cambridge: Harvard Universtiy Press, 1983, p. 14.

375. Mayke de Jong, In Samuel's Image, p. 57.

376. Patriccia A. Quinn, Better Than The Sons of Kings: Boys and Monks in the Early Middle Ages, pp. 26, 115, 130.

377. Joseph H. Lynch, Simoniacal Entry Into Religious Life From 1000 to 1260: A Social, Economic, and Legal Study. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1976.

378. Jenny Jochens, "Old Norse Motherhood." In John Carmi Parsons and Bonnie Wheeler, Eds., Medieval Mothering. New York: Garland Publishing, 1996, p. 204.

379. P. W. Joyce, A Social History of Ancient Ireland... Third Ed. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1920, Vol. 2, pp. 15-19.

380. Catherine M. Scholten, Childbearing in American Society, p. 64.

381. Joan B. Silk, "Adoption and Fosterage in Human Societies: Adaptation or Enigmas?" Cultural Anthropology 2(1987): 44.

382. David F. Greenberg, The Construction of Homosexuality. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1988, p. 109; Mark Golden, Children and Childhood in Classical Athens, p. 145.

383. Grant McCracken, "The Exchange of Children in Tudor England: An Anthropological Phenomenon in Historical Context." The Journal of Family History 8(1983): 303-313.

384. A. I. Richards, "Authority Patterns in Traditional Buganda." In L. A. Fallers, Ed., The King's Men: Leadership and States in Buganda...Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1964, p. 260.

385. Ibid., p. 263.

386. Anon., A Relation or rather a True Account of the Island of England...about the Year 1500. Camden Society, Vol. 37. London, 1847, p. 24.

387. Philippe Ariès, "In Interpretation to be Used for a History of Mentalities." In Patricia Ranum, Ed., Popular Attitudes Toward Birth Control in Pre-Industrial France and England. New York: Harper, 1972, p. 117.

388. Mary Ann Mason, From Father's Property to Children's Rights. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994, p. 32.

389. Patricia T. Rooke and R. L. Schnell, "The 'King's Children" in English Canada: A Psychohistorical Study of Abandonment, Rejection and Colonial Response (1869-1930)." The Journal of Psychohistory 8(1981): 387.

390. Esther Goody, "Parental Strategies: Calculation or Sentiment?: Fostering Practices Among West Africans." In Hans Medick and David Warren Sabean, Eds., Interest and Emotion: Essays on the Study of Family and Kinship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984, pp. 265-277.

391. Michael Mitterauer, "Servants and Youth." Continuity and Change 5(1990): 11-38.

392. M. Dorothy George, London Life in the Eighteenth Century. New York: Harper, 1964, p. 227.

393. Mary Hopkirk, Nobody Wanted Sam: The Story of the Unwelcomed Child, 1530-1948. London: John Murray, 1949, p. 62.

394. Francoise Barret-Ducroca, Love in the Time of Victoria. New York: Penguin Books, 1989, p. 48.

395. Anthony Fletcher, Gender, Sex and Subordination in England 1500-1800, p. 160.

396. Jonathan Goldber, Queering the Renaissance. Durham: Duke University Press, 1994, pp. 236-244.

397. Colin Heywood, Childhood in Nineteenth-Century France: Work, Health, and Education Among the Classes Populaires. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

398. Ruth Inglis, Sins of the Fathers: A Study of the Physical and Emotional Abuse of Children. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1978, p. 19.

399. Peter G. Clamp, "Climbing Boys, Childhood, and Society in Nineteenth-Century England." The Journal of Psychohistory 12(1984): 194.

400. Mrs. C. S. Peel, The Stream of Time: Social and Domestic Life in England 1805-1861. London: John Lane, 1931, p. 56.

401. Martin Hoyles, Changing Childhood. London: Writers and Readers Publishing Cooperative, 1979, p. 3.

402. Augustus J. C. Hare, The Story of My Life. Vol. 1. London, 1896, p. 51.

403. Stephanie de Genlis, Memoirs, p. 20.

404. Barbara A. Hanawalt, "Childrearing Among the Lower Classes of Late Medieval England." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 8(1977):17; Barbara A. Hanawalt, The Ties That Bound, p. 158; Carl Holliday, Woman's Life in Colonial Days. Boston: The Cornhill Publishing Co., 1922, p. 25.

405. Louise Florence P. d'Epinay, Memoirs of Madame d'Epinay. Vol. I. Paris: Sociétés Bibliophiles, 1903, p. 106.

406. Jay R. Reierman, "A Biosocial Overview of Adult Human Sexual Behavior with Children and Adolescents." In Jay R. Feierman, Ed., Pedophilia: Biosocial Dimensions. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1990, p. 30.

407. Ray H. Bixler, "Do We/Should We Behave Like Animals?" In William O'Donohue, Ed., The Sexual Abuse of Children, Vol. 1. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992, p. 94.

408. Frans de Waal, Bonobo: The Forgotten Ape. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997, pp. 100-105; Alexandra Maryanski and Jonathan H. Turner, The Social Cage: Human Nature and the Evolution of Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992, pp. 22-23.

409. Clara Mears Harlow, From Learning to Love: The Selected Papers of H. F. Harlow. New York: Praeger, 1986, p. 228; Gregory C. Leavitt, "Sociobiological Explanations of Incest Avoidance: A Critical Review of Evidential Claims." American Anthropologist 92(1990): 981; R. Dale Guthrie, Body Hot Spots: The Anatomy of Human Social Organs and Behavior. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1976, p. 96.

410. Wenda R. Trevathan, Human Birth: An Evolutionary Perspective. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1987, p. 33.

411. Helen E. Fisher, Anatomy of Love: The Natural History of Monogamy, Adultery, and Divorce. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1992, p. 180.

412. Lloyd deMause, "The Role of Adaptation and Selection in Psychohistorical Evolution." The Journal of Psychohistory 16(1989): 362.

413. Anne Banning, "Mother-Son Incest: Confronting a Prejudice." Child Abuse & Neglect 13(1989): 564.

414. Michele Elliott, "What Survivors Tell Us--An Overview." In Michele Elliott, Ed., Female Sexual Abuse of Children: The Ultimate Taboo. Harlow: Longman, 1993, p. 9.

415. Margaret M. Rudin, et al., "Characteristics of Child Sexual Abuse Victims According to Perpetrator Gender." Child Abuse & Neglect 19(1995): 963.

416. Adele Mayer, Women Sex Offenders. Holmes Beach: Learning Publications, 1992, p. 5.

417. Christine Lawson, "Mother-Son Sexual Abuse: Rare or Underreported? A Critique of the Research." Child Abuse & Neglect 17(1993): 261, 266; Ira J. Chasnoff, et al., "Maternal-Neonatal Incest." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 56(1986): 577-80.

418. A. A. Rosenfeld, et al., "Determining Contact Between Parent and Child: Frequency of Children Touching Parents' Genitals in a Non-Clinical Population." Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 25(1986): 229.

419. Estela V. Welldon, Mother, Madonna, Whore: The Idealization and Denigration of Motherhood. New York: The Guilford Press, 1988, p. 96; Stanley J. Coen, "Sexualization as a Predominant Mode of Defense." Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 29(1981): 905; Joseph C. Rheingold, The Fear of Being a Woman, p. 108. Also see Mike Lew, Victims No Longer: Men Recovering From Incest. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.

420. Katherine Mayo, Mother India. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1927, p. 25.

421. S. N. Rampal, Indian Women and Sex. New Delhi: Printoy, 1978, p. 69.

422. Colin Spencer, Homosexuality in History. New York: Harcourt Brace & Co., 1996, p. 79.

423. Allen Edwardes, The Cradle of Erotica. New York: the Julian Press, 1963, p. 40; Raphael Patai, The Arab Mind. New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1983, p. 38; Given J. Broude, Growing Up, p. 303

424. Robert J. Smith and Ella Lury Wiswell, The Women of Suye Mura. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1982, pp. 68-72; Douglas G. Harig, "Aspects of Personal Character in Japan." In Douglas G. Haring, Ed., Personal Character and Cultural Milieu. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1956, p. 416; Nicolas Bornoff, Pink Saurai: Love, Marriage and Sex in Contemporary Japan. New York: Pocket Books, 1991, p. 76.

425. Edgar Gregersen, Sexual Practices: The Story of Human Sexualiy. New York: Franklin Watts, 1983, p. 246.

426. Machio Kitahara, "Childhood in Japanese Culture," p. 56.

427. Michio Kitahara, "Incest-Japanese Style." The Journal of Psychohistory 17(1989: 446.

428. Kenneth Alan Adams and Lester Hill, Jr., "The Phallic Planet." The Journal of Psychohistory 28(2000): 33.

429. Ibid., p. 31.

430. Kenneth Alan Adams and Lester Hill, Jr., "Castration Anxiety in Japanese Group-Fantasies." The Journal of Psychohistory 26(1999): 779-809; Kenneth Alan Adams and Lester Hill, Jr., "The Phallic Planet," pp. 24-52; Stanley Rosenman, "The Spawning Grounds of the Japanese Rapists of Nanking." The Journal of Psychohistory 28(2000): 2-23.

431. Aline Rousselle, Porneia, p. 54.

432. Michael L. Satlow, "'They Abused Him Like a Woman': Homoeroticism, Gender Blurring, and the Rabbis in Late Antiquity," Journal of the History of Sexuality 5(1994): 15.

433. Franz Borkenau, End and Begining: On the Generations of Cultures and the Origins of the West. New York: Columbia University Press, 1981, pp. 116-117; Wolfgang Lederer, The Fear of Women. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1968, p. 121.

434. Artemidorus, Oneirocritica 1, 79-80.; John J. Winkler, The Constraints of Desire: The Anthropology of Sex and Gender in Ancient Greece. New York: Routledge, pp. 34, 211-215.

435. Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 980.

436. Luciano P. R. Santiago, The Children of Oedipus: Brother-Sister Incest in Psychiatry, Literature, History and Mythology. Roslyn Heights: Libra Publications, 1973, p. 23.

437. Robert Parker, Miasma: Pollution and Purification in EarlyGreek Religion. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983, p. 97.

438. Keith Hopkins, "Brother-Sister Marriage in Roman Egypt." Comparative Studies in Society and History 22(1980): 303-354; R. H. Bixler, "Sibling Incest in the Royal Families of Egypt, Peru and Hawaii." Journal of Sex Research 18(1983): 264-81; Russell Middleton, "Brother-Sister and Father-Daughter Marriage in Ancient Egypt." American Sociological Review 27(1988): 603-11.

439. Soranus, Gynecology, 107; Gabriel Falloppius, "De decoraturie trachtaties," cap. 9, Opera Omnia, Vol. 2. Frankfurt, 1600, p. 336.

440. Pierre J. Payer, Sex and the Penitentials: The Development of a Sexual Code: 550-1150. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1984, p. 31.

441. Giovanni Dominici, On the Education of Children. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America, 1927, p. 41; Jean Gerson, Oevres Complètes. Vol. IX. Paris: Desclée & Cie, 1973, p. 43.

442. Uta Ranke-Heinemann, Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven, p. 123; Leo Steinberg, The Sexuality of Christ in Renaissance Art and in Modern Oblivion. 2nd Ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996, p. 9, 40, 73;Jean-Jacques Bouchard, Les Confessions de Jean-Jacques Bouchard. Paris: Librairie Gallimard, 1930, pp. 28-36; Wilhelm Reich, Passion of Youth: An Autobiography, 1897-1922. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1988, pp. 6-25; Joseph W. Howe, Excessive Venery, Masturbation and Continence. New York: E. B. Treat, 1893, p. 63;Bernard Grebanier, The Uninhibited Byron: An Account of His Sexual Confusion. New York: Crown Publishers, 1970, p. 24; C. Gasquoine Hartley, Motherhood and the Relationships of the Sexes. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1917, p. 312.

443. Daphne duMaurier, The Young George duMaurier: A Selection of His Letters 1860-67. London: Peter Davies, 1951, p. 223; David Herlihy and Christiane Klapisch-Zuber, Tuscans and Their Families. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1978, p. 255; Christian Augustus Struve, A Familiar Treatise on the Physical Education of Children...London: Murray & Highley, 1801, p. 273.

444. Abeelwahab Bouhdiba, Sexuality in Islam. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985, pp. 119, 165-173; Norbert Elias, The Civilizing Process. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994, p. 135; Fernando Henriques, Prostitution in Europe and the Americas. New York: The Citadel Press, 1965, p. 57.

445. Heinrich Ploss, Das weib in der Natur- und Völkerkunde. Anthropologische Stdien.2. Band 1. Leipzig, 1887, p. 300.

446. Edgar Gregersen, Sexual Practices, p. 228.

447. Giulia Sissa, Greek Virginity. Cambridge: Harvard Universtiy Press, 1990.

448. Ibid., p. 176.

449. Ibid., p. 113.

450. Bradley A. Te Paske, Rape and Ritual: A Psychological Study. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1982, p. 117.

451. Danielle Jacquart and Claude Thomasset, Sexuality and Medicine in the Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988, p. 44.

452. Esther Lastique and Helen Rodnite Lemay, "A Medieval Physian's Guide to Virginity." In Joyce E. Salisbury, Ed., Sex in the Middle Ages. New York: Garland Publishing, 1991, p. 56.

453. Reginald Reynolds, Beds: With Many Noteworthy Instances of Lying On, Under, or About Them. Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1951, p. 20.

454. William Manchester, The World Lit Only By Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1992, p. 53.

455. Jean-Louis Flandrin, Families in Former Times: Kinship, Household and Sexuality. Cambrdige: Cambridge University Press, 1979, p. 100.

456. J. Robert Wegs, Growing Up Working Class: Continuity and Change Among Viennese Youth, 1890-1938. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1989, p. 126.

457. Louise A. Jackson, Child Sexual abuse in Victorian England. London: Routledge, 2000, p. 3; Andrew Vachss, "Comment on 'The Universality of Incest." The Journal of Psychohistory 19(1991): 219.

458. Gail Elizabeth Wyatt, "The Sexual Abuse of Afro-American and White Women in Childhood." Child Abuse & Neglect 9(1985): 507-19; Diana E. H. Russell, The Secret Trauma: Incest in the Lives of Girls and Women. New York: Gasic Books, 1986.

459. Judson T. Landis, "Experiences of 500 Children with Adult's Sexual Deviance." Psychiatric Quarterly Supplement 30(1956): 91-109.

460. Kathleen A. Kendall-Tackett and Arthur F. Simon, "Molestation and the Onset of Puberty: Data From 365 Adults Molested As Children." Child Abuse and Neglect 12(1988): 73.

461. Henry B. Bill and Richard S. Solomon, Child Maltreatment and Paternal Deprivation. Lexington: Lexington Books, 1986, p. 59.

462. M. Fromuth, "Childhood Sexual Victimization Among College Men." Violence and Victim 2(1987): 241-253; G. Fritz et al.,"A Comparison of Males and Females Who Were Sexually Molested as Children." Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 7(1981): 54-59

463. R. F. Badgley, Sexual Offenses Against Children. 2 Vols. Ottawa: Canadian Government Publishing Centre, 1984; D. J. West, Ed., Sexual Victimisation: Two Recent Researches Into Sex Problems and Their Social Effects. Aldershot: Hants, 1985; Judy Steed, Our Little Secret: Confronting Child Sexual Abuse in Canada. Toronto: Random House of Canada, 1994, p. xii.

464. Lloyd deMause, "The Universality of Incest," pp. 140-164.

465. Beatrice Webb, My Apprenticeship. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1926, p. 321.

466. Richard and Eva Blum, Health and Healing in Rural Greece: A Study of Three Communities. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1965; Shunichi Kubo, "Researches on Incest in Japan." Hirosh ima Journal of Medical Science 8(1959): 99-159.

467. Karen J. Taylor, "Venereal Disease In Nineteenth-Century Children." The Journal of Psychohistory 12(1985): 441.

468. J. Robert Wegs, Growing Up Working Class: Continuity and Change Among Viennese Youth, 1890-1938, p. 125.

469. Jay Belsky, Laurence Steinberg and Patricia Draper, "Childhood Experience, Interpersonal Developmenbt, and Reproductive Strategy: An Evolutionary Theory of Socialization." Child Development 62(1991): 655, 659; "Marks of Abuse." Newsday, April 2, 1991, p. 69.

470. D. W. Amundsen, "The Age of Menarche in Classical Greece and Rome." Human Biology 41(1969): 125-132; Carol Jean Diers, "Historical Trends in the Age at Menarche and Menopause." Psychological Reports 34(1974): 931-937; Phyllis B. Eveleth, "Timing of Menarche." In J. B. Lancaster, Ed. School-Age Pregnancy and Parenthood: Biosocial Dimensions. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1986, pp. 39-52; Peter Laslett, Family Life and Illicit Love in Earlier Generations: Essays in Historical Sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977, pp. 214-217; Janice Delaney et al., The Curse: A Cultural History of Menstruation. Rev. Ed. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1976, p. 49; Peter Laslett, "Age at Menarche in Europe Sice the Eighteenth Century." The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 2(1971): 221-225; Heide Wunder, He Is the Sun, She Is the Moon: Women in Early Modern Germany. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998, p. 25.

471. J. M. Tanner, "Sequence, Tempo, and Individual Variation in Growth and Development of Boys and Girls Aged Twelve to Sixteen." In Jerome Kagan and Robert Coles, Twelve to Sixteen: Early Adolescence. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1972, p. 23.

472. John Money, The Kaspar Hauser Syndrome of "Psychosocial Dwarfism": Deficient Statural, Intellectual, and Social Growth Induced by Child Abuse. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1992, pp. 55, 115. It is also likely that the short stature of even the wealthy in premodern times was more due to child abuse than to poor nutrition.

473. Amy Richlin, "Not Before Homosexuality: The Materiality of the Cinaedus and the Roman Law Against Love Between Men." Journal of the History of Sexuality 3(1993): 547.

474. Jean Héroard, Journal de Jean Héroard sur l'enfance et la jeunesse de Louix XIII...Ed. Soulié et Barthélemy. Paris: Firmin Didot frères, 1868.

475. Seymour Byman, "Psychohistory Attacked." The Journal of Psychohistory 5(1978): 578; Friedrich von Zglinicki, Geschichte des Klistiers. Frankfurt: Viola Press, n.d.

476. David Hunt, Parents and Children in History, p. 144.

477. Elizabeth W. Marvick, "Childhood History and Decisions of State: The Case of Louis XIII."History of Childhood Quarterly 2(1974): 150.

478. Lucy Crump, Nursery Life 300 Years Ago. London: George Routledge & Sons, 1929, p. 64.

479. Philippe Ariès, Centuries of Childhood: A Social History of Family Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962, p. 101.

480. David Hunt, Parents and Children in History, pp. 163, 167.

481. Philippe Ariès, Centuries of Childhood, p. 105.

482. Maria Adelaide Lowndes, "Child Assault in England." In Sheila Jeffreys, The Sexuality Debates. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1987, p. 278.

483. Florence Rush, The Best Kept Secret: Sexual Abuse of Children. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1980, p. 27.

484. Charles W. Socarides, The Preoedipal Origin and Psychoanalytic Therapy of Sexual Perversions. Madison: International Universities Press, 1988, p. 455.

485. Aline Rousselle, "The Family Under the Roman Empire: Signs and Gestures." In André Burguiére, et al., Eds., A History of the Family: Vol. One, p. 280.

486. Guilia Sissa, Greek Virginity, p. 88.

487. Martin Killias, "The Historic Origins of Penal Statutes Concerning Sexual Activities Involving Children and Adolescents." Journal of Homosexuality 20(1990): 43.

488. Anna Clark, Women's Silence, Men's Violence: Sexual Assault in England 1770-1845. London: Pandora, 1987, p. 30.

489. Juan Luis Vives, "A Very Fruitful and Pleasant Book Called the Instruction of a Christian Woman." In Joan Larsen Klein, Ed., Daughters, Wives, and Widows, p. 105.

490. WCBS-TV, "60 Minutes," October 19, 2000.

491. Richard and Eva Blum, Healthy and Healing in Rural Greece: A Study of Three Communities. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1965, p. 49.

492. Giulia Sissa, Greek Virginity, p. 88.

493. Richard Zacks, History Laid Bare. New York: HarperCollins, 1994, p. 1.

494. Alenka Puhar, "On Childhood Origins of Violence in Yugoslavia," p. 181.

495. Kathleen A. Kendall-Tackett, "Molestation and the Onset of Puberty." Child Abuse & Neglect 12(1988): 76; David Finkelhor, Child Sexual Abuse: New Theory and Research. New York: Free Press, 1984; J. Michael Cupoli, "One Thousand Fifty-Nine Children With a Chief Complaint of Sexual Abuse." Child Abuse & Neglect 12(1988): 158.

496. A Woman Physician and Surgeon, Unmasked, or, The Science of Immorality. Philadelphia: William H. Boyd, 1878, pp. 88, 91.

497. Diana E. H. Russell, The Secret Trauma, p. 234.

498. Linda Gordon, Heroes of Their Own Lives: The Politics and History of Family Violence - Boston 1880-1960. New York: Viking, 1988, p. 211.

499. Maria Adelaide Lowndes, "Child Assault in England," pp. 271-278.

500. Lionel Rose, IThe Erosion of Childhood: Child Oppression in Britain 1860-1918. London: routledge, 1991, . 22.

501. David H. Flaherty, Privacy in Colonial New England. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1972, p. 80.

502. Philip Jenkins, Moral Panic: Changing Concepts of the Child Molester in Modern America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998, p. 33.

503. Arthur P. Wolf, "Adopt a Daughter-in-Law, Marry a Sister: A Chinese Solution to the Problem of the Incest Taboo." American Antyhropologist 70(1968): 864-874.

504. Ursula M. Cowgill and G. E. Hutchinson, "Sex Ratio in Childhood and the Depopulation of the Peten, Guatemala." Human Biology 35(1963): 90.

505. Russell Trainer, The Lolita Complex. New York: Citadel Press, 1966, p. 22.

506. Alison Plowden, The Young Elizabeth. New York: Macmillan & Co., 1971, pp. 87-88.

507. Martin Bauml Duberman, About Time: Exploring the Gay Past. New York: Gay Presses of New York, 1986, pp. 68-74.

508. Robert Ker Porter, "Traveling Sketches in Russia and Sweden, 1805-08." In Peter Putnam, Ed., Seven Britons in Imperial Russia, 1698-1812. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952, p. 327.

509. Georges Duby, The Knight, the Lady and the Priest: The Making of Modern Marriage in Medieval France. New York: Pantheon Books, 1983, p. 70.

510. Florence Rush, The Best Kept Secret, p. 57.

511. Allen Edwardes, The Cradle of Erotica, p. 300.

512. Nawal El Saadawi, The Hidden Face of Eve: Women in the Arab World. Boston: Beacon Press, 1980, p. 14.

513. Richard and Eva Blum, The Dangerous Hour, p. 216.

514. Gordon Thomas, Enslaved. New York: Pharos Books 1991, p. 3.

515. Kevin Bales, Disposable People. Berkeley: University of California Press, p. 220.

516. Anna Clark, Women's Silence, Men's Violence, p. 41.

517. Louise A. Jackson, Child Sexual Abuse in Victorian England. London: Routledge, 2000, p. 111.

518. Samuel X. Radbill, "Children in a World of Violence: A History of Child Abuse." In Ray E. Helfer and Ruth S. Kampe, The Battered Child. Fourth Ed., Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1987, p. 9.

519. Michael Pearson, The Five-Pound Virgins. New York: Saturday Review Press, 1972, p. 29.

520. Russell Trainer, The Lolita Complex, p. 23; Charles Terrot, The Maiden Tribute: A Study of the White Slave Traffic of the Nineteenth Century. London: Frederick Mulley, 1959, p. 17.

521. Ronald Pearsall, Night's Black Angels: The Forms and Faces of Victorian Cruelty. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1975, p. 244.

522. Florence Rush, The Best Kept Secret, p. 61.

523. Franz Seraphim Hügel, Zur Geschichte, Statistik und Regelung der Prostitution. Wien, 1865, p. 207.

524. Nancy Qualls Corbett, The Sacred Prostitute: Eternal Aspects of the Feminine. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1988, p. 37; Cathy Joseph, "Scarlet Wounding: Issues of Child Prostitution." The Journal of Psychohistory 23(1995): 14.

525. Ellen Bass, I Never Told Anyone: Writings by Women Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse. New York: Harper & Row, 1983, p. 34.

526. Genesis 19.8.

527. Reay Tannahill, Flesh and Blood, p. 49.

528. Roger Just, Women in Athenian Law and Life. London: Routledge, 1989, p. 142.

529. Sarah B. Pomeroy, Families in Classical and Hellenistic Greece, p. 21.

530. John Lascaratos and Effie Poulakou-Rebelakou, "Child Sexual Abuse: Historical Cases in the Byzantine Empire (324-1453 A.D.)" Child Abuse & Neglect 24(2000): 1088.

531. Florence Rush, The Best Kept Secret, p. 37.

532. Elizabeth Abbott, A History of Celibacy, p. 143.

533. Elinor Burkett and Frank Bruni, A Gospel of Shame: Children, Sexual Abuse and the Catholic Church. New York: Viking, 1993, p. 27.

534. David Nicholas, The Domestic Life of a Medieval City: Women, Children, and the Family in Fourteenth-Century Ghent. Loncoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1985, p. 64.

535. John Marshall Carter. Rape in Medieval England: An Historical and Sociological Study. New York: University Press of America, 1985, p. 148.

536. Ibid., p. 126; Guido Ruggiero, The Boundaries of Eros: Sex Crimes and Sexuality in Renaissance Venice. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985, p. 93;

537. Antony E. Simpson, "Vulnerability and the age of Female Consent: Legal Innovation and Its Effect on Prosecutions for Rape in Eighteenth-Century London." In G. S. Rousseau and Roy Porter, Eds., Sexual Underworlds of the Enlightenment. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988, p. 193.

538. B. W. Brewster, "The Incest Theme in Folksong." Folklore Fellows Communications 90(212): 3.

539. V. R. Bhalerao, "Profile of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Child Prostitutes in the Red Light Areas of Bombay." In Usha S. Naidu and Kamini R. Kapadia, EDs., Child Labour and Health: Problems and Prospects. Bombay: Tata Institute of Social Sciences, 1985, p. 203.

540. David F. Greenberg, The Construction of Homosexuality, p. 259.

541. Jacques Rossiaud, "Prostitution, Youth and Society in the Towns of Southeastern France in the Fifteenth Century." In Robert Forster and Orest Ranum, Eds., Deviants and the Abandoned in French Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1978, p. 6.

542. Jean-Louis Flandrin, Sex in the Western World: The Development of Attitudes and Behaviour. Chur: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1991, p. 272.

543. William Manchester, A World Lit Only By Fire, Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1992, p. 41; John Marshall Carter, Rape in Medieval England, p. 57.

544. Jacques Rossiaud, Medieval Prostitution. New York: Basil Blackwell, 1988, p. 39.

545. Ibid., p. 21.

546. Jean-Louis Flandrin, Sex in the Western World, p. 269.

547. Philip E. Slater, The Glory of Hera: Greek Mythology and the Greek Family. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968, p. 24.

548. Florence Rush, The Best Kept Secret, p. 31.

549. Charles Socarides, The Preoedipal Origin and Psychoanalytic Therapy of Sexual Perversions, p. 463.

550. Ibid., p. 462.

551. Robin Scroggs, The New Testament and Homosexuality: Contextual Background for Contemporary Debate. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1983, p. 48.

552. Elizabeth Abbott, A History of Celibacy, p. 49.

553. Daniel Boyarin, "Are There Any Jews in 'The History of Sexuality'?" Journal of the History of Sexuality 5(1995): 333.

554. Charles Socarides, The Preoedipal Origin and Psychoanalytic Therapy of Sexual Perversions, p. 463.

555. William Armstrong Percy III, Pederasty and Pedagogy in Archaic Greece. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1996, p. 31; Craig A. Williams, Roman Homosexuality, p. 20.

556. Craig A. Williams, Roman Homosexuality, p. 24.

557. Amy Richlin, The Garden of Priapus: Sexuality and Aggression in Roman Humor. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983, p. 68.

558. Eva Centarella, Bisexuality in the Ancient World. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992, p. 26.

559. Frederick Charles Forberg, Manual of Classical Erotology. New York: Grove Press, 1966, p. 101-103.

560. Martial. 11.22.9.

561. Paul Veyne, "Homosexuality in Ancient Rome." In Philippe Ariès and André Béjin, Western Sexuality: Practice and Precept i Past and Present Times. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1985, p. 33.

562. David M. Halperin, One Hundred Years of Homosexuality and Other Essays on Greek Love. New York: Routledge, 1990, p. 135.

563. Bernard Sergent, Homosexuality in Greek Myth. Boston: Beacon Press, 1984., p. 39.

564. Evan Cantarella, Bisexuality in the Ancient World, p. 213.

565. Guido Ruggiero, Boundaries of Eros, p. 117; Gregory M. Pflugfelder, Cartographies of Desire: Male-Male Sexuality in Japanese Discourse, 1600-1950. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999, pp. 238-239.

566. Stephen O. Murray, "Age-Stratified Homosexuality: Introduction." In Stephen O. Murray, Ed., Oceanic Homosexualities. New York: Garland Publishing, 1992, p. 5; Will Roscoe, "How to Become a Berdache: Toward a Unified Analysis of Gender Diversity."In Gilbert Herdt, Ed., Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History. New York: Zone Books, 1994, p. 364; Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe, Eds., Boy-Wives and Female Husbands. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998.

567. Wainwright Churchill, Homosexual Behavior Among Males: A Cross-Cultural and Cross-Species Investigation. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1967, pp. 75-83; Barry D. Adam, "Age, Structure, and Sexuality: Reflections on the Anthropological Evidence on Homosexual Relations." Journal of Homosexuality 11(1985): 19-33; David F. Greenberg, The Construction of Homosexuality, p. 164.

568. Maarten Schild, "The Irresistible Beauty of Boys." In Joseph Geraci, Ed., Dares To Speak: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Boy-Love. Norfolk: The Gay Men's Press, 1997, p. 87.

569. Mark Golden, Children and Childhood in Classical Athens, p. 59.

570. Reay Tannahill, Sex in History. New York: Stein and Day, 1980, p. 89.

571. Keith R. Bradley, Discovering the Roman Family: Studies in Roman Social History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991, p. 53.

572. John R. Ungaretti, "Pederasty, Heroism, and the Family in Classical Greece." Journal of Homosexuality 3(1978): 292.

573. Ibid., p. 295; Richard C. Trexler, Sex and Conquest, p. 23.

574. Richard C. Trexler, Sex and Conquest, p. 195; Allen Edwardes, The Cradle of Erotica, p. 222.

575. Helen E. Elsom, "Callirhoe: Displaying the Phallic Woman." In Amy Richlin, Ed., Pornography and Representation in Greece and Rome. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 215.

576. Bernard Sergent, Homosexuality in Greek Myth, p. 41.

577. Cathy Joseph, "Scarlet Wounding: Issues of Child Prostitution." The Journal of Psychohistory 23(1995): 8.

578. Richie J. McMullen, Male Rape: Breaking the Silence on the Last Taboo. London: GMP Publications, 1990, p. 42; Dennis Drew and Jonathan Drake, Boys for Sale: A Sociological Study of Boy Prostitution. New York: Brown Book Co., 1969, pp. 22-27.

579. William Armstrong Percy III, Pederasty and Pedagogy in Archaic Greece, p. 183.

580. Julia O'Faolain, Ed., Not in God's Image. New York: Harper & Row, 1973, p. 59.

581. Martial, Epigrams XI.45.

582. Alline Rousselle, Porneia, p. 135.

583. Danielle Jacquat and Claude Thomasset, Sexuality and Medicine in the Middle Ages. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1985, p. 124.

584. Michael Rocke, Forbidden Friendships: Homosexuality and Male Culture in Renaissance Florence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, p. 14.

585. Alan Bray, Homosexuality in Renaissance England. London: Gay Men's Press, 1982, p. 51.

586. Ibid.

587. John Boswell, Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe. New York: Villard Books, 1994, p. 247.

588. Aline Rousselle, Porneia, p. 148.

589. Patricia A. Quinn, Better Than The Sons of Kings: Boys and Monks in the Early Middle Ages. New York: Peter Lang, 1988, p. 165.

590. Elizabeth Abbott, A History of Celibacy, p. 101.

591. Peter Damian, Book of Gomorrah. Waterloo: Wilfred Laurier University Press, 1982, pp. 27, 42.

592. Jerrold Atlas, "Pederasty, Blood Shedding and Blood Smearing: Men in Search of Mommy's Feared Powers." The Journal of Psychohistory 28(2000): 116-149.

593. Michael J. Rocke, "Sodomites in Fifteenth-Century Tuscany: The Views of Bernardino of Siena." In Kent Gerard and Gert Hekman, Eds., The Pursuit of Sodomy: Male Homosexuality in Renaissance and Enlightenment Europe. New York: Harrington Park Press, 1989, pp. 9, 13.

594. Ibid., pp. 15, 12.

595. Michael Rocke, Forbidden Friendships, p. 156.

596. Guido Ruggiero, The Boundaries of Eros, p. 138.

597. Michael Rocke, Forbidden Friendships, p. 7.

598. Richard Davenport-Hines, Sex, Death and Punishment: Attitudes to Sex and Sexuality in Britain Since the Renaissance. London: Collins, 1990, p. 61; Philippe Ariès, Centuries of Childhood: A Social History of Family Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962, p. 117.

599. Richard C. Trexler, Dependence in Context in Renaissance Florence. Binghamton: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1994, p. 375.

600. Louise DeSalvo, Virginia Woolf: The Impact of Childhood Sexual abuse on Her Life and Work. Boston: Beacon Press, 1989, p. 31.

601. Alisdare Hickson, The Poisoned Bowl: Sex Repression and the Public School System. London: Constable, 1995; Phyllis Grosskurth, Ed., The Memoirs of John Addington Symonds. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1984, p. 94

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