Citations: Restaging Early Traumas in War and Social Violence


1. Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1971, p. 59.

2. Norbert Bromberg and Verna Volz Small, Hitler's Psychopathology. New York: International Universities Press, 1983.

3. Alice Miller, For Your Own Good: Hidden Cruelty in Child-Rearing and the Roots of Violence. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1983, p. 152; George Victor, Hitler: The Pathology of Evil. Washington: Brassey's, 1998, p. 29.

4. Bromberg and Small, Hitler's Psychopathology, pp. 137 and 280.

5. Victor, Hitler: The Pathology of Evil, p. 128.

6. Hitler, Mein Kampf, p. 388.

7. Ibid., pp. 59-60.

8. Bromberg and Small, Hitler's Psychopathology, p. 281.

9. Lloyd deMause, Foundations of Psychohistory. New York: Creative Roots, 1982, pp. 48-59; Lloyd deMause, "Schreber and the History of Childhood," The Journal of Psychohistory 15(1987):426-7; Aurel Ende, "Battering and Neglect: Children in Germany, 1860-1978." Journal of Psychohistory 7(1980): 249-79; Aurel Ende, "Bibliography on Childhood and Youth in Germany from 1820-1978." Journal of Psychohistory 7(1980): 281-7; Aurel Ende, "Children in History: A Personal Review of the Past Decade's Published Research." Journal of Psychohistory 11(1983): 65-88.

10. Robert Wistrick, Hitler's Apocalypse: Jews and the Nazi Legacy. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1985; Edward Timms, Karl Kraus, Apocalyptic Satirist: Culture and Catastrophe in Habsburg Vienna. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986.

11. Bromberg and Small, Hitler's Psychopathology, p. 24.

12. Lloyd deMause, Foundations of Psychohistory, pp. 172-243.

13. Simon Schama, Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989, p. 73.

14. Lloyd deMause, Foundations of Psychohistory, pp. 244-317.

15. K. Codell Carter, "On the Decline of Bloodletting in Nineteenth Century Medicine." The Journal of Psychoanalytic Anthropology 5(1982): 221.

16. Michael C. C. Adams, The Great Adventure: Male Desire and the Coming of World War I. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990, p. 57.

17. Ibid., p. 51.

18. Ibid., p. 61.

19. Juha Siltala, "Prenatal Fantasies During the Finnish Civil War." The Journal of Psychohistory 22(1995): 486.

20. Burr Cartwright Brundage, The Fifth Sun: Aztec Gods, Aztec World. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979.

21. Ibid., p. 487.

22. Michael C. C. Adams, The Great Adventure, p. 55.

23. Ibid., p. 53.

24. Lloyd deMause, "The Gulf War as a Mental Disorder." The Journal of Psychohistory 19(1991): 1-23.

25. Miriam Robbins Dexter, Whence the Goddesses: A Source Book. New York: Pergamon Press, 1990; Paul Friedrich, The Meaning of Aphrodite. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978.

26. James A. Aho, Religious Mythology and the Art of War: Comparative Religious Symbolisms of Military Violence. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981; Wolfgang Lederer, The Fear of Women. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1968, p. 58.

27. Ilse Kirk, "Images of Amazons: Marriage and Matriarchy." In Sharon Macdonald, Pat Holden and Shirley Ardener, Eds., Images of Women in Peace and War. Houndmills: Macmillan Education, 1987, pp. 27-39.

28. Burr Cartwright Brundage, The Fifth Sun, p. 201; Margaret Ehrenberg, Women in Prehistory. London: British Museum Publications, 1989, p. 163.

29. Joan Haslep, Marie Antoinette. New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1987; Lynn Hunt, "The Many Bodies of Marie Antoinette: Political Pornography and the Problem of the Feminine in the French Revolution" and Vivian Cameron, "Political Exposures: Sexuality and Caricature in the French Revolution." In Lynn Hunt, Ed., Eroticism and the Body Politic. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991, pp. 109-130; Simon Schama, Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989, pp. 203-227; Terry Castle, "Marie Antoinette Obsession." Representations 38(1992): 1-38; Madelyn Gutwirth, The Twilight of the Goddesses. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1992, pp. 136-200.

30. Lynn Hunt, "The Many Bodies of Marie Antoinette," pp. 122-3; Simon Schama, Citizens, p. 796.

31. Richard Grenier, "Killer Bimbos." Commentary, September 1991; "Kiss Kiss Slash Slash." Newsweek, March 23, 1992.

32. New York Post, June 16, 1986, p. 4.

33. James A. Aho, Religious Mythology and the Art of War: Comparative Religious Symbolisms of Military Violence. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981, pp. 21-23.

34. John Bierhorst, Ed. The Hungry Woman: Myths and Legends of the Aztecs. New York: William Morrow, 1984, p. 10.

35. Bruce Lincoln, Death, War, and Sacrifice: Studies in Ideology and Practice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991, p. 13.

36. Preben Meulengracht Sorensen, The Unmanly Man: Concepts of Sexual Defamation in Early Northern Society. Odense,: Odense University Press,1983, p. 82; Allen Edwardes, Erotica Judaica: A Sexual History of the Jews. New York: Julian Press, 1967, pp. 69-76.

37. Martin van Creveld, The Transformation of War. New York: The Free Press, 1991, p. 179.

38. Sidney Halpern, "The Mother-killer." The Psychoanalytic Review 52(1965): 73.

39. Aleksei Fedorovich Losev, cited in Daniel Rancour-Laferriere, The Slave Soul of Russia: Moral Masochism and the Cult of Suffering. New York: New York University Press, 1995, p. 226.

40. Lloyd deMause, Foundations of Psychohistory, pp. 90-102, 244-332.

41. Nancy Huston, "The Matrix of War: Mothers and Heroes." In Susan Rubin Suleiman, The Female Body in Western Culture: Contemporary Perspectives. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986, p. 133.

42. Mickel Adzema, "The Scenery of ™ealing." The Journal of Psychohistory 23(1996): 396.

43. Ralph H. Lutz, Fall of the German Empire 1914-1918: Documents of the German Revolution. Vol. I. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1932, p. 13.

44. Jeremy Noakes and Geoffrey Pridham, Eds. Documents on Nazism, 1919-1945. London: Jonathan Cape, 1974, p. 37; Robert Wistrich, Hitler's Apocalypse: Jews and the Nazi Legacy. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1985, p. 134.

45. For further examples of the fetal drama, see Lloyd deMause, Foundations of Psychohistory, pp. 261-282.

46. J. R. Davidson, "The Shadow of Life: Psychosocial Explanations for Placenta Rituals." Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 9(1985): 75-92.

47. Didier Anzieu, The Group and the Unconscious. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984, p. 161.

48. Sigmund Freud, "The Interpretation of Dreams," Standard Edition, Vol. 5. London: The Hogarth Press, 1959, p. 400.

49. Otto Rank, The Trauma of Birth. New York: Richard Brunner, 1952; Otto Rank, The Myth of the Birth of the Hero and Other Writings. New York: Random House, 1932.

50. In Collected Papers: Through Paediatrics to Psycho-analysis. New York: Basic Books, 1958, pp. 174-193.

51. Donald W. Winnicott, Human Nature. London: Free Association Books, 1988, p. 149.

52. Collected Papers, pp. 177-8.

53. Ibid., pp. 249-250..

54. Nandor Fodor, The Search for the Beloved: A Clinical Investigation of the Trauma of Birth and Prenatal Condition. New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1949; Francis J. Mott, The Universal Design of Creation. Edenbridge: Mark Beech, 1964; Francis J. Mott, Mythology of the Prenatal Life. London: Integration Publishing Co., 1960; Arnaldo Rascovsky, El Psiquismo Fetal. Buenos Aires: Editorial Paidos, 1977; Stanislav Grof, Realms of the Human Unconscious: Observations from LSD Research. New York: Viking Press, 1975; Stanislav Grof, Beyond the Brain: Birth, Death and Transcendence in Psychotherapy. Albany: State University of New York, 1985; Arthur Janov, The Primal Scream: Primal Therapy-The Cure for Neurosis. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1970; Thomas R. Verny and John Kelley, The Secret Life of the Unborn Child. New York: Summit Books, 1981; Thomas R. Verny, Ed., Pre- and Perinatal Psychology: An Introduction. New York: Human Sciences Press, 1987; Peter Fedor-Freybergh and M. L. Vanessa Vogel, Eds., Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine: Encounter With the Unborn. Carnforth: the Parthenon Publishing Group, 1988; Ludwig Janus, Wie die Seele entsteht: unser psychisches Leben vor und nach der Geburt. Hamburg: Hoffman und Campe, 1991.

55. Calvin S. Hall, "Prenatal and Birth Experiences in Dreams." Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 1(1967): 157-74.

56. Lynda Share, If Someone Speaks, It Gets Lighter: Dreams and the Reconstruction of Infant Trauma. Hillsdale, N.J.: The Analytic Press, 1994.

57. K. Mark Sossin, "Pre- and Postnatal Repercussions of Handicapping Conditions Upon the Narcissistic Line of Development." Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal 7(1993): 197.

58. G. Engel, et al., "Monica: Infant-feeding Behavior of a Mother Gastric Fistula-fed as an Infant: A Thirty-Year Longitudinal Study of Enduring Effects." In E. Anthony and G. Pollack, Eds. Parental Influences in Health and Disease. Boston: Little, Brown, 1985, pp. 30-89.

59. William Niederland, "The Role of the Ego in the Recovery of Early Memories." Psychoanalytic Quarterly 34(1965): 568.

60. Share, If Someone Speaks, It Gets Lighter, pp. 191-196.

61. The International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine and Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal. For excellent recent bibliographies, see M. Maiwald and L. Janus, "Development, Behavior and Psychic Experience in the Prenatal Period and the Consequences for Life History: A Bibliographic Survey." International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine 5 (1993): 451-485; and M. Maiwald, "Development, Behavior and Psychic Experience in the Prenatal Period and the Consequences for Life History: A Bibliographic Survey." Int. J. Prenatal and Perinatal Psych. and Med. 6(1994): Suppl. 1-48. More extensive bibliography of pioneering fetal psychologists can be found in Lloyd deMause, Foundations of Psychohistory, "The Fetal Origins of History," pp. 244-332.

62. Maggie Scarf, Body, Mind, Behavior. New York: Dell Publishing, 1976, pp. 23-40; Robert C. Goodlin, Care of the Fetus. New York: Masson Publishing, 1979, p. 192; Thomas R. Verny, Pre- and Perinatal Psychology: An Introduction. New York: Human Sciences Press, 1987, p. 25.

63. K. J. S. Anand and P. R. Hickey, "Pain and Its Effects in the Human Neonate and Fetus." The New England Journal of Medicine, 317 (1987): 1322.

64. Joseph E. LeDoux, "Emotion, Memory and the Brain." Scientific American, June 1994, pp. 50-57; John P. Aggleton, Ed. The Amygdala: Neurobiological Aspects of Emotion, Memory, and Mental Dysfunction. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992; Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books, 1995. For how hippocampus-cortical loops lay down long-term memory, see Gerald Edelman, The Remembered Present: A Biological Theory of Consciousness. New Yokr: Basic Books, 1989, p. 129.

65. Bessel A. van der Kolk, "The Trauma Spectrum: The Interaction of Biological and Social Events in the Genesis of the Trauma Response." Journal of Traumatic Stress 1(1988): 273-290; Antonio R. Damasio, Descartes Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1994, pp. 173-183.

66. Robert M. Bradley and Charlotte M. Mistretta, "Fetal Sensory Receptors." Physiological Reviews 55(1975): 358; Tryphena Humphrey, "Function of the Nervous System During Prenatal Life," in Uwe Stave, Ed. Physiology of the Perinatal Period. Vol. 2. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1970, pp. 754-89.

67. Robert Goodlin, Care of the Fetus, p. 1.

68. A. W. Liley, "The Foetus as Personality." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 6(1972): 99-105; Alessandra Piontelli, From Fetus to Child: An Observational and Psychoanalytic Study. London: Tavistock/Routledge, 1992; A. Ianniruberto and E. Tajani, "Ultrasonographic Study of Fetal Movements." Seminars in Perinatology 5 (1981): 175-181; T. B. Brazelton and B. G. Cramer, The Earliest Relationship. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1990.

69. W. E. Rayburn, "Monitoring Fetal Body Movement." Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 3(1987): 889-911.

70. P. H. Wolff, The Causes, Control and Organization of Behavior in the Neonate. (Psychological Issues Monographs No. 17). New York: International Universities Press, 1966, pp. 22-23; Arthur Efron, "The Sexual Body: An Interdisciplinary Perspective." The Journal of Mind and Behavior 6 (1985): 118-121.

71. Jeanette M Soby, Prenatal Exposure to Drugs/Alcohol: Characteristics and Educational Implications of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Cocaine/Polydrug Effects. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1994.

72. M. Lieberman, "Early Development of Stress and Later Behavior." Science 1141(1963): 824; Sharon Milberger, et al., "Is Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy a Risk Factor for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children?" 153(1996): 1138-1142.

73. Bibliographic references can be found in Christopher Norwood, At Highest Risk: Environmental Hazards to Young and Unborn Children. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1980, and Child at Risk: A Report of the Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science. Quebec: Canadian Government Publishing Center, 1980.

74. R. E. Myers, "Production of Fetal Asphyxia by Maternal Psychological Stress." Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science 12(1977): 51-62.

75. T. F. Anders and C. H. Zeanah. "Early Infant Development From a Biological Point of View." In J. D. Call, E. Galenson and R. L. Tyson, Eds., Frontiers of Infant Psychiatry, Vol. II. New York: Basic Books, 1984; J. A. Connolly and J. H. Cullen, "Maternal Stress and the Origins of Health Status." Ibid., Vol. I, 1983; B. R. H. van den Bergh, "The Influence of Maternal Emotions During Pregnancy on Fetal and Neonatal Behavior." Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal 5(1990): 119-130; Thomas Blum, Ed. Prenatal Perception, Learning and Bonding. Berlin: Leonardo Publishers, 1993.

76. New York Newsday, February 8, 1994, p. 69.

77. Chairat Panthuraamphorn, "Prenatal Infant Stimulation Program" in Blum, Ed., Prenatal Perception, pp. 187-220.

78. Thomas R. Verny, "Womb Ecology/World Ecology." Talk delivered at 2nd World Congress for Prenatal Education, Athens, Greece, May 14, 1994.

79. Lester Sontag, "Implications of Fetal Behavior and Environment for Adult Personalities." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 134 (1965): 782-6.

80. Robert Goodlin, Care of the Fetus, p. 10; Dennis H. Stott, testimony, in Senate of Canada: Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science. Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977, "Childhood Experiences of Criminal Behavior," Issue No. 1, Second Proceeding, Nov. 24, 1977.

81. Child At Risk: A Report of the Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science. Hull: Canadian Government Publishing Center, 1980, p. 16.

82. Margaret E. Fries, "Longitudinal Study: Prenatal Period to Parenthood." Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 25(1977): 115-140; Margaret E. Fries, Marie Coleman Nelson and Paul J. Woolf, "Developmental and Etiological Factors in the Treatment of Character Disorders with Archaic Ego Function." The Psychoanalytic Review 67(1980): 337-352.

83. Lorraine Roth Herrenkohl, "The Anxiety-Prone Personality: Effects of Prenatal Stress on the Infant." In Roy J. Mathew, Ed. The Biology of Anxiety. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1982, pp. 51-86; Antonio J. Ferreira, "The Pregnant Woman's Emotional Attitude and Its Reflection on the Newborn." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 30 (1960): 553-6; Child At Risk: A Report of the Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science. Hull: Canadian Government Publishing Center, 1980; John H. W. Barrett, "Prenatal Influences on Adaptation in the Newborn." In Peter Stratton, Ed. Psychobiology of the Human Newborn. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1982, p. 270; Psychology Today, 4 (1971): 49; Abram Blau, et al.., "The Psychogenic Etiology of Premature Births." Psychosomatic Medicine 25 (1963): 201-11; A. J. Ward, "Prenatal stress and childhood psychopathology." Child Psychiatry and Human Development 22 (1991: 97-110; Lars Billing, et al, "The Influence of Environmental Factors on Behavioral Problems in 8-Year-Old Children Exposed to Amphetamine During Fetal Life." Child Abuse & Neglect 18 (1994): 3-9; D. H. Stott, "Follow-up Study from Birth of the Effects of Prenatal Stress." Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 15 (1973): 770-87; Norman L. Corah, et al., "Effects of Perinatal Anoxia After Seven Years." Psychological Monographs 79 (1965): 1-32; Sarnoff A. Mednick, "Birth Defects and Schizophrenia," Psychology Today 4 (1971): 48-50; Sarnoff A. Mednick et al., Eds., Fetal Neural Development and Adult Schizophrenia. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991; "Delinquents Said To Have Perinatal Injuries," Psychiatric News, September 1, 1978, p. 26; David B. Chamberlain, "Prenatal Intelligence." In Thomas Blum, Ed. Prenatal Perception, Learning and Bonding. Berlin: Leonardo Publishers, 1993, pp. 14-21; A. J. Ward, "Prenatal Stress and Childhood Psychopathology." Child Psychiatry and Human Development 22(1991): 97-110; Adrian Raine, The Psychopathology of Crime: Criminal Behavior as a Clinical Disorder. San Diego: Academic Press, 1993.

84. Elaine Morgan, The Descent of the Child: Human Evolution from a New Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 78.

85. Adrian Raine, Patricia Brennan, Sarnoff A. Mednick, "Birth Complications Combined With Early Maternal Rejection at Age 1 Year Predispose to Violent Crime at Age 18 Years." Archives of General Psychiatry 51(1994): 984-988; Henry P. David, Zilenek Dybrich, Zilenek Matejcek and Vratislav Schuller, Born Unwanted: Developmental Effects of Denied Abortion. New York: Springer, Publications, 1988.

86. The New York Times October 3, 1995, pp. C1 and C10.

87. Michael S. Gazzaniga, Nature's Mind: the Biological Roots of Thinking, Emotions, Sexuality, Language, and INtelligence. New York: Basic Books, 1992.

88. Gerald M. Edelman, The Remembered Present: A Biological Theory of Consciousness. New York: Basic Books, 1989, p. 44; Joseph E. LeDoux, "Emotion, Memory and the Brain." Scientific American, June 1994, pp. 50-57.

89. New York Daily News, June 17, 1992, p. 7.

90. Lyle S. Joffe, et al., "Biobehavioral Antecedents in the Development of Infant-Mother Attachment." In Martin Reite and Tiffany Field, Eds., The Psychobiology of Attachment and Separation. New York: Academic Press, 1985, p. 334.

91. B. R. H. Van Den Bergh, "Maternal Emotions During Pregnancy and Fetal and Neonatal Behaviour." In Jan G. Nijhuis, Ed. Fetal Behaviour: Developmental and Perinatal Aspects. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 168.

92. Bruce S. McEwen and Harold M. Schmeck, Jr., The Hostage Brain. New York: The Rockefeller University Press, 1994, p. 72.

93. Ibid., p. 77.

94. M. N. Bustan and A. L. Coker, "Maternal Attitude Toward Pregnancy and the Risk of Neonatal Death." American Journal of Public Health 84(1994): 411-414.

95. Bessel A. van der Kolk and Jose Saporta, "The Biological Response to Psychic Trauma: Mechanisms and Treatment of Intrusion and Numbing." Anxiety Research 4(1991): 199-212; Herbert Hendin, Suicide in America: New and Expanded Edition. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1995, p. f16.

96. Jan Volavka, Neurobiology of Violence. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, 1995; M. J. P. Kruesi, "Cruelty to Animals and CSF 5-HIAA." Psychiatry Research 28(1989): 115-116; Bessel A. van der Kolk, "The Trauma Spectrum: The Interaction of Biological and Social Events in the Genesis of the Trauma Response." Journal of Traumatic Stress 1(1988): 273-290.

97. Bertil Jacobson, "Perinatal Origin of Eventual Self-Destructive Behavior." Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology 2(1988): 227-241.

98. Ronald Kotulak, Inside the Brain: Revolutionary Discoveries of How the Mind Works. Kansas City: Andrews and McMeel, 199671.

99. Ibid., p. 240; Jude Roedding, "Birth Trauma and Suicide: A Study of the Relationship Between Near-Death Experiences at Birth and Later Suicidal Behavior." Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal 6 (1991): 145-169; L. Salk et al., "Relationship of maternal and perinatal conditions to eventual adolescent suicide. Lancet 1(1985): 624-627; Thomas R. Verny, "The Scientific Basis of Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology: Part 1." Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology 3 (1989): 166.

100. Ronald F. Goldman, Circumcision: The Hidden Trauma. Boston: Vangard Publications, 1996.

101. Ernest M. Gruenberg, "On the Psychosomatics of the Not-So-Perfect Fetal Parasite." In Stephen A. Richardson and Alan F. Guttmacher, Eds. Childbearing: Its Social and Psychological Aspects. New York: Williams & Wilkins, 1967, p. 54.

102. Roger E. Stevenson, The Fetus and Newly Born Infant: Influences of the Prenatal Environment. 2nd Ed. St. Louis: C. V.Mosby, 1977, p. 3.

103. Heinz Bartels. Prenatal Respiration. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1970, p. 47.

104. A. Briend, "Fetal Malnutrition: The Price of Upright Posture?" British Medical Journal 2(1979): 317-319.

105. Joseph Barcroft, Researches in Pre-Natal Life. Vol. 1. Springfield, Ill.: Charles Thomas, 1947, p. 209.

106. Lubor Jilek et al., "Characteristic Metabolic and Functional Responses to Oxygen Deficiency in the Central Nervous System." In Uwe Stave, Ed. Physiology of the Perinatal Period, p. 1043.

107. Peter Boylan and Peter J. Lewis, "Fetal Breathing in Labor." Obstetrics and Gynecology 56 (1980): 35-8; Peter Lewis, Peter Boylan, "Fetal Breathing: A Review." American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 134 (1979): 270-5; Uwe Stave, Ed. Physiology of the Perinatal Period. Vol. 2. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1970, 987-992; Carl Wood, Adrian Walker and Robert Yardley, "Acceleration of the Fetal Heart Rate." American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 134 (1979) 523-7.

108. Lindsey Kent, et al, "Fetal Abuse." Child Abuse & Neglect 21(1997): 181-186.

109. R. A. Polverini-Rey, Intrauterine Musical Learning: The Soothing Effect on Newborns of a Lullaby Learned Prenatally. Doctoral Thesis, Los Angeles: California School of Professional Psychology, 1992.

110. Anthony J. DeCasper & W. P. Fifer, "Of Human Bonding: Newborns Prefer Their Mother's Voices." Science 208 (1980): 1174-1176; P. G. Hepper and S. Shahidullah, "Newborn and Fetal Response to Maternal Voice." Journal of Reproduction and Infant Psychology 11(1993): 147

153; Thomas R. Verny, "The Scientific Basis of Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology: Part 1." Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology 3 (1989): 162-4; William P. Fifer, "Neonatal Preference for Mother's Voice." In Norman A. Krasnegor, et al, Eds., Perinatal Development: A Psychobiological Perspective. New York: Academic Press, 1987, pp. 111-115; Robert C. Goodlin, Cry of the Fetus. New York: Masson Publishing, 1979, p. 11.

111. William B. Sallenbach, "The Intelligent Prenate: Paradigms in Prenatal Learning and Bonding." In Thomas Blum, Ed., Prenatal Perception, Learning and Bonding. Berlin: Leonardo Publishers, 1993, p. 73.

112. Anthony DeCasper, "Studying Learning in the Womb." Science, 225, (1984): p. 384; "Human Fetuses Perceive Maternal Speech." Behavior Today. Feb. 4, 1985, pp. 1-7.

113. David B. Chamberlain, "Prenatal Intelligence." In Thomas Blum, Ed., Prenatal Perception, pp. 20-21; David Chamberlain, Babies Remember Birth. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher, 1988.

114. Brad Steiger and Sherry Hansen Steiger, Children of the Light: Children's Near-Death Experiences. New York: Signet, 1995, p. 117.

115. D. Spelt, "The Conditioning of the Human Fetus in Utero." Journal of Experimental Psychology 38(1948): 338-346; David B. Chamberlain, "Babies Are Not What We Thought: Call for a New Paradigm." International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Studies 4 (1992): 168-169; Erna Osterweil, "A Psychoanalytic Exploration of Fetal Mental Development and Its Role in the Origin of Object Relations." Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the California Graduate Institute. 1990; Linda Carter-Jessop and Barbara Keller, "Early Maternal Bonding." In Thomas R. Verny, Pre- and Perinatal Psychology: An Introduction. New York: Human Sciences Press, 1987, pp. 107-127.

116. M. Colleen Stainton, "The Fetus: A Growing Member of the Family." Family Relations 34 (1985): 321-326; R. Van DeCarr and M. Lehrer, The Prenatal Classroom: A Parent's Guide for Teaching Their Preborn Baby. Atlanta: Humanics Publishing Group, 1992.

117. Ibid., p. 324.

118. M. Freeman, "Is Infant Learning Egocentric or Duocentric? Was Piaget Wrong?" Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal 2 (1987): 25-42.

119. A full bibliography is contained in Thomas Blum, "Early Proto-Developmental Enrichment Stimulations and Possible Changes in the Functional Morphology of the Brain." In Thomas Blum and David Yew, Eds. Human Prenatal Brain Development. Berlin: Leonardo Publishers, 1993.

120. Alessandra Piontelli, From Fetus to Child: An Observational and Psychoanalytic Study. London: Tavistock/Routledge, 1992, p. 18.

121. Leah LaGoy, "The Loss of a Twin In Utero's Effect on Pre-Natal and Post-Natal Bonding." International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine 5(1993): 439-444.

122. Piontelli, From Fetus to Child, p. 15.

123. Ibid., p. 146.

124. Alessandra Piontelli, "Pre-Natal Life and Birth as Reflected in the Analysis of a 2-Year-Old Psychotic Girl." International Review of Psycho-Analysis. 15(1988): 73-81.

125. Nandor Fodor, The Search for the Beloved: A Clinical Investigation of the Trauma of Birth and Prenatal Condition. New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1949; Stanislav Grof, Beyond the Brain: Birth, Death and Transcendence in Psychotherapy. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York, 1985; Arthur Janov, The Feeling Child. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1973; Arnaldo Rascovsky, El psiquismo Fetal. Buenos Aires: Editorial Paidos, 1977; Lynda Share, If Someone Speaks, It Gets Lighter: Dreams and the Reconstruction of Infant Trauma. Hillsdale, N.J.: The Analytic Press, 1994; E. V. Subbotsky, Foundations of the Mind: Children's Understanding of Reality. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993; Thomas R. Verny, Ed. Pre- and Peri-natal Psychology: An Introduction. New York: Human Sciences Press, 1987; David Chamberlain, Babies Remember Birth. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher, 1988; Thomas Blum, Ed. Prenatal Perception Learning and Bonding. Berlin: Leonardo Publishers, 1993; K. Schier, "The Analysis of Appearance and Meaning of Prenatal and Perinatal Phantasies in the Psychoanalytically Oriented Psychotherapy of Children." International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine 5(1993): 433-438; Michael Maiwald and Ludwig Janus, "Development, Behavior and Psychic Experience in the Prenatal Period and the Consequences for Life History-A Bibliographic Survey." International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine 5(1993): 451-485.

126. Thomas R. Verny, "Sometimes a Cigar Is Just a Cigar." The Journal of Psychohistory 10(1982): 214.

127. David B. Chamberlain, "Commentary on Lloyd deMause's 'Fetal Origins of History.'" The Journal of Psychohistory 10(1982): 224.

128. Allessandra Piontelli, From Fetus to Child, pp. 114, 120.

129. Ibid., p. 41.

130. Ibid., pp. 46-47.

131. Ibid., pp. 185-191.

132. Ibid., pp. 58, 60, 67.

133. Geraldine Fink, "Analysis of the Isakower Phenomenon." Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 15(1967): 282.

134. Otto Isakower, "A Contribution to the Patho-Psychology of Phenomena Associated With Falling Asleep." International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 19(1938): 331-34. 135. Otto E. Sperling, "A Psychoanalytic Study of Hypnagogic Hallucinations." Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 5(1957): 115-123.

136. Ibid., pp. 424-425.

137. Ralph B. Little, "Spider Phobias." Psychoanalytic Quarterly 36(1967): 51-60.

138. Leonard Shengold, "The Effects of Overstimulation: Rat People." International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 48(1967): 409.

139. Ralph B. Little, "Umbilical Cord Symbolism of the Spider's Dropline." Psychoanalytic Quarterly 35(1966): 587-590.

140. Barbara Creed, The Monstrous-Feminine: Film, Feminism, Psychoanalysis. London: Routledge, p. 63.

141. Willhelm Reich, Character-Analysis. Third, enlarged Edition. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1949, pp. 501-502.

142. David Rosenfeld, The Psychotic: Aspects of the Personality. London: Karnac Books, 1992, p. 237.

143. Margaret S. Mahler, The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant: Symbiosis and Individuation. New York: Basic Books, 1975, p. 266.

144. E. A. S. Butterworth, The Tree at the Navel of the Earth. Berlin: Walter DeGruyter & Co., 1970.

145. Michael Barkun. Disaster and the Milenium. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974.

146. J. F. C. Harrison, The Second Coming: Popular Millenarianism 1780-1850. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979.

147. Michael Barkun. Crucible of the Millennium: The Burned-Over District of New York in the 1840s. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1986, p. 143.

148. J. F. C. Harrison, The Second Coming, pp. 62, 97.

149. Michael Barkun, The Second Coming," p. 50.

150. Mircea Eliade, The Myth of the Eternal Return; or, Cosmos and History. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1954; Mircea Eliade, Rites and Symbols of Initiation: The Mysteries of Birth and Rebirth. New York: Harper & Row, 1958; Norman Cohn, Cosmos, Chaos and the World to Come. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993; Joseph L. Henderson and Maud Oakes, The Wisdom of the Serpent: Myths of Death, Rebirth, and Resurrection. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963.

151. James George Frazer, The Golden Bough. Third Edition. Part VI. The Scapegoat. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1913, p. vi.

152. Frank H. Denton and Warren Phillips, "Some Patterns in the History of Violence." Conflict Resolution 12(1968): 182-195.

153. John P. Wilson, Trauma, Transformation and Healing: An Integrative Approach to Theory, Research, and Post-Traumatic Therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1989, pp. 27-33; Bessel A. van der Kolk and Jose Saporta, "The Biological Response to Psychic Trauma: Mechanisms and Treatment of Intrusion and Numbing." Anxiety Research 4(1991): 199-212; M. Michele Murburg, Ed. Catecholamine Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Emerging Concepts. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, 1994.

154. J. Douglas Bremner et al., "MRI-Based Measurement of Hippocampal Volume in Patients With Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder." American Journal of Psychiatry 152(1995): 973-980; The New York Times, August 1, 1995, p. C3.

155. Anthony Demasio, Decartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York: Bantam, 1995.

156. Michael Davis, "The Role of the Amygdala in Conditioned Fear." In John P. Aggleton, Ed., The Amygdala: Neurobiological Aspects of Emotion, Memory, and Mental Dysfunction. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992, pp. 255-305; Joseph E LeDoux, "Emotion and the Amygdala." In Ibid., p. 344.

157. Joseph E. LeDoux, "Emotion, Memory and the Brain." Scientific American, June, 1994, pp. 50-57.Van der Kolk and Saporta, "The Biological Response to Psychic Trauma," p. 204. LeDoux's two memory systems are divided somewhat differently into thalamocortical and limbic systems in Gerald M. Edelman, The Remembered Present: A Biological Theory of Consciousness. New York: Basic Books, 1989, p. 152. For multiple memory systems, see Daniel L. Schacter and Endel Tulving, Memory Systems 1994. Cambridge, Mass. The MIT Press, 1994.

158. Linda Share, If Someone Speaks, It Gets Lighter: Dreams and the Reconstruction of Infant Trauma. New York: The Analytic Press, 1994.

159. Arthur S. Kling and Leslie A. Brothers, "The Amygdala and Social Behavior." In John P. Aggleton, Ed., The Amygdala, pp. 353-377.

160. Ronald Kotulak, Inside the Brain: Revolutionary Discoveries of How the Mind Works. Kansas City: Andrews and McMeel, 1996; Jan Volavka, Neurobiology of Violance. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, 1995; Bessel A. van der Kolk, et al, Eds. Traumatic Stress: The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body, and Society.New York: Guilford Press, 1996.

161. Bessel A. van der Kolk, "The Trauma Spectrum: The Interaction of Biological and Social Events in the Genesis of the Trauma Response." Journal of Traumatic Stress 1(1988): 276; G. W. Kraemer, et al., "Hypersensitivity to D-Amphetamine Several Years After Early Social Deprivation in Rhesus Monkeys." Psychopharmacology 82(1984): 266-271

162. Gregory L. Hanna, et al., "Whole Blood Serotonin and Disruptive Behaviors in Juvenile Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 34(1995): 28-35.

163. A. W. Burgess, et al., "Abused to Abuser: Antecedents of Socially Deviant Behavior." American Journal of Psychiatry 144(1987): 1431-1436.

164. L. Bryce Boyer, The Regressed Patient. New York: Jason Aronson, 1983, pp. 127-129.

165. Ronadl Kotulak, Inside the Brain, p. 81.

166. Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books, 1995, p. 201.

167. Ibid..

168. Emmy Werner, "Children of the Garden Island." Scientific American 260(1989): 106-111.

169. Alvin H. Lawson, "Placental Guitars, Umbilical Mikes, and the Maternal Rock-Beat: Birth Fantasies and Rock Music Videos." The Journal of Psychohistory 21(1994): 335-354.

170. Ron Rosenbaum, "Among the Believers." New York Times Magazine, September 24, 1995, p. 50.

171. Gavin P. Reynolds, "The Amygdala and the Neurochemistry of Schizophrenia." In John P. Aggleton, Ed., The Amygdala, pp. 561-574.

172. Amputees feel pain in the missing limb, a pain which disappears only when the physician provides a "mirror box" that allows the amputee to "see" his phantom limb restored; see U.S. News & World Report, October 2, 1995, p. 78. It is thus reasonable to assume that people join groups to restore their phantom placentas.

173. Lloyd deMause, Foundations of Psychohistory. New York: Creative Roots, 1982, p. 289.

174. John Roscooe, The Baganda: An Account of Their Native Customs and Beliefs. New York: Frank Cass & Co, 1965 (1911).

175. Alvin H. Lawson, "Perinatal Imagery in UFO Abduction Reports." The Journal of Psychohistory 12(1984): 211-239.

176. Ibid., p. 218.

177. Lloyd deMause, Reagan's America. New York: Creative Roots, 1984.

178. Joshua S. Goldstein, "Kondratieff Waves as War Cycles." International Studies Quarterly 29(1985): 425.

179. Charles W. Socarides, "On Homosexual Dread and Homosexual Desire." Presentation at the American Psychoanalytic Association Meeting December 17, 1995, New York City.

180. Lloyd deMause, Foundations of Psychohistory. New York: Creative Roots, 1982, pp. 190, 218.

181. The New York Times, June 22, 1994, p. C11. Most homicides involve "righteous slaughter" in revenge for humiliation; see Jack Katz, Seductions of Crime: Moral and Sensual Attractions in Doing Evil. New York: Basic Books, 1988, p. 22.

182. Herbert Childs, An American Genius: The Life of Ernest Orlando Lawrence. New York: Dutton, 1968, p. 340.

183. Ira Chernus, Dr. Strangegod: On the Symbolic Meaning of Nuclear Weapons. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1986, p. 86.

184. Charles L. Mee, Jr. Meeting at Postsdam. New York: Evans and Co., 1975, p. 29.

185. Thomas Merton, Original Child Bomb. New York: New Directions, 1962.

186. Carol Cohn, "'Clean Bombs' and Clean Language." In Jean Bethke Elshtain and Sheila Tobias, Eds. Women, Militarism, and War: Essays in History, Politics, and Social Theories. Savage, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1990, p. 41.

187. Robert J. Lifton, The Broken Connection. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1979, p. 371.

188. James Gilligan, Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and Its Causes. New York: G. P. Putnam's sons, 1992, pp. 195-6.

189. Lloyd deMause, Reagan's America. New York: Creative Roots, 1984, p. 66.

190. William K. Joseph, "Prediction, Psychology and Economics." The Journal of Psychohistory 15(1987): 110-111.

191. Juha Siltala, "The Welfare State as a Suffocating Medusa." The Journal of Psychohistory 23(1996): 412-414.

192. Liberal Opinion Weekly, December 1, 1995, p. 5.

193. Duncan Lindsey, The Welfare of Children. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994, p. 224.

194. Ibid., p. 214.

195. The Nation, May 12, 1997, p. 7.

196. James W. Prescott, "Deprivation of Human Affection As A Primary Process. In David Gil, Ed., Child Abuse and Violence. New York: AMS Press, p. 104.

197. Ronald Goldman, Circumcision:: The Hidden Trauma. Forthcoming.

198. Lars-Erik Nelson, "Welfare Plan Will Dump Children on the Streets." Liberal Opinion Week, September 18, 1995, p. 3.

199. Chicago Sun Times, February 10, 1997, p. 22.

200. The New York Times, October 23, 1995, p. A15; The New York Times, November 6, 1995, p. A17.

201. The Atlantic Monthly, October 1995.

202. The New York Times ,November 13, 1995, p. A29.

203. The New York Times, May 14, 1995, p. 22.

204. J. Larry Brown and ERnesto Pollitt, "Malnutrition, Poverty and Intellectual Development." Scientific American, February 1996, pp. 38-43.

205. The Washington Post, February 26, 1995, p. C7.

206. Molly Ivins, "Many Horrors in GOP Budget." Liberal Opinion Week, December 18, 1995, p. 7.

207. The New York Times, January 6, 1996, p. A1.

208. The Journal of Psychohistory Vol. 21, No. 1, Summer 1993 and Vol. 24, No. 4, Spring 1997.

209. Arloc Sherman, Wasting America's Future: The Children's Defense Fund Report on the Costs of Child Poverty. Boston: Beacon Press, 1994, p. 62.

210. Ronald Kotulak, Inside the Brain: Revolutionary Discoveries of How the Mind Works. Kansas City: Andres and McMeel, 1996, p. 8.

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